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How NFL offensive linemen escape the 5,000-calorie lunch and transform in retirement – ESPN

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

7:30 AM ET

Emily KaplanESPN

It's 3 p.m., and Joe Thomas needs to eat. He's driving with his family but is getting hungry. Is it really hunger? He doesn't know. Throughout his entire NFL career as an offensive tackle with the Cleveland Browns, Thomas was conditioned to eat every two hours, because his job literally depended on it.

Thomas finds a McDonald's on the GPS. It will be quick -- just a bit of fuel between lunch and dinner. He orders two double cheeseburgers, two McChickens, a double quarter-pounder with cheese, one large order of fries and a large Dr. Pepper.

"Or another sugary drink," he said recently. "Just to add 500 calories, the easy way."

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It wasn't easy playing 10,000 consecutive snaps or fending off football's most explosive pass-rushers. But it was just as hard for Thomas to maintain a 300-plus-pound frame. He had to consume an insatiable amount of food. Here's a potential day in the life:

Think breakfast: four pieces of bacon, four sausage links, eight eggs, three pancakes and oatmeal with peanut butter, followed by a midmorning protein shake.

Lunch? Perhaps pasta, meatballs, cookies "and maybe a salad, great, whatever" from the team cafeteria.

For dinner, Thomas could devour an entire Detroit-style pizza himself, and then follow it with a sleeve of Thin Mint Girl Scout cookies and a bowl of ice cream. And finally, he would slurp down another protein shake before getting into bed.

"If I went two hours without eating, I literally would have cut your arm off and started eating it," the former offensive lineman said. "I felt if I missed a meal after two hours, I was going to lose weight, and I was going to get in trouble. That was the mindset I had. We got weighed in on Mondays, and if I lost 5 pounds, my coach was going to give me hell."

Eating in excess isn't as glamorous as it sounds. In fact, laborious might be the better word. Throughout his career, Thomas woke up in the middle of the night and "crushed Tums." He relied on pain medications and anti-inflammatories, and he had constant heartburn.

Then Thomas retired in 2018. "When you start eating and exercising like a normal human being," Thomas said, "the health benefits are amazing." He not only threw away the over-the-counter meds, but his skin cleared up, his yoga practice improved and he felt less bloated. Within six months, 60 pounds melted off from his 325-pound playing weight. By September 2019, TMZ picked up Thomas' transformation, headlining an article: "Ex-NFL Fat Guy ... LOOKS LIKE A CHISELED GREEK GOD."

"I just had a great laugh," Thomas said. "Isn't that the typical lineman life? Eleven years in the NFL, and all I'm known as now is ex-NFL fat guy."

Thomas is the latest example of an offensive lineman who, after retiring, recommitted to a normalized, healthy lifestyle after overeating and over-medicating during his NFL career. His journey might seem dramatic, but it's not uncommon.

Longtime San Francisco 49ers tackle Joe Staley, who played in the most recent Super Bowl, has already donated five garbage bags of clothing and bought all new belts since his waist slimmed from 40 to 36 inches and he lost 50 pounds. Former Baltimore Ravens guard Marshal Yanda dropped 60 pounds in three months by going from 6,000 calories per day to 2,000. Nick Hardwick, Jeff Saturday, Alan Faneca and Matt Birk are all former big guys who now look like shells of themselves, which generated tabloid-like attention. The list continues on and on.

So how'd they pull it off? We interviewed nine retired offensive linemen about the lengths they went to in bulking up and their secrets to slimming down after hanging up their cleats. The players were candid about body image insecurities, outrageous diets, struggles with eating disorders and the short- and long-term health ramifications of maintaining their playing weights for so many years.

Former offensive tackle Jordan Gross started 167 games over 11 seasons for the Carolina Panthers. He was a Pro Bowler three times, made the All-Rookie team in 2003 and started at right tackle for the Panthers in Super Bowl XXXVIII. Then he retired in 2014 and lost 70 pounds within six months.

"Fans know me more for losing weight than they do for anything I did in my entire career," Gross said.

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Although that kind of weight loss can be inspiring, it also points to the unhealthy relationship with food many offensive linemen develop, usually dating back to college. Faneca, a first-round draft pick of the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1998 who went on to 201 career starts with three teams, recalls his position coach at LSU chastising the entire offensive line once for "looking like a bunch of stuffed sausages," challenging them to lose a pound a day. Later, he was told he had to gain more.

Thomas puts it bluntly: "You're training yourself to have an eating disorder the way you view food when you're in the NFL, and to try to deprogram that is a real challenge." Body image and self-esteem issues can fester, as these athletes are told their worth can essentially be measured in calories and pounds.

"I always had this insecurity of being big when it came to dating life, talking to women and going out being a 300-pound man," said former Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Atlanta Falcons center/guard Joe Hawley. "I didn't want to be that big, but I had to because I loved football and that was my job."

A lot of the weight is artificial to begin with. As Gross points out, "not many people are naturally that big," but bulking up was essential to playing at the highest level and making millions of dollars. Gross, for example, ingested an enormous amount of protein each day while playing, including six pieces of bacon, six scrambled eggs, two 50-gram protein shakes, four hard-boiled eggs and two chicken breasts -- all before 2 p.m. in the afternoon.

It's a somewhat new phenomenon, according to Dr. Archie Roberts, a 1965 draft pick of the Jets who went on to become a cardiac surgeon. In 2001, Roberts co-founded the Living Heart Foundation, which annually conducts health screenings for retired football players. "In the 1990s, there was a push that suggested to some people that putting on more weight might make it a more effective and exciting game," Roberts said. "Because the bigger offensive linemen could hold off the defensive rush for a longer time so that the quarterback could throw the ball down the field, leading to more spectacular passing plays."

Playing weights began ballooning across the league, especially on the line. According to Elias Sports Bureau research, the average weight of starting offensive linemen was 254.3 pounds in 1970. It jumped to 276.9 by 1990, but the largest increase in poundage would come in the following 10 years. A decade later, the average O-line starter checked in at 309.4 pounds. Today the number stands at 315, more than 60 pounds heavier than 50 years ago.

Hawley typically played between 295 and 300 pounds, but during his fifth year in the league, he adopted the paleo diet and ate clean. He lost 10 to 15 pounds and played the following season at 285. "It was hard to keep weight on eating clean like that, but I felt so much better," Hawley said. "I had so much energy; I wasn't as lethargic,"

Then, he re-signed in Tampa Bay.

"Because I was getting pushed around a little bit playing on the offensive line that way, they told me I needed to gain weight," Hawley said. "So I went to a more unhealthy diet, which made me feel, well, not as good. But it's what I had to do to play."

"Being skinny as a lineman wouldn't be helpful, because you would have to create more force to stop those big guys," Thomas said. "Inertia becomes an issue. I'm a big, fat guy, you're running at me, you don't have to create as much force because I'm just heavier, fatter and have more mass."

Although that mass helps on the field, health complications can follow. In May, USA Today ran an entire column wondering if offensive linemen were more susceptible to severe complications from COVID-19 because of their size. Roberts warns that massive weight gain can also lead to obesity. "Which then affects their heart, lungs, kidney and their minds," Roberts said. "It's not proven, but it also may be associated with Alzheimer's disease and possibly traumatic brain injury."

Once playing careers wind down, many players must assess whether it's worth it to carry the extra pounds. Many have decided to downsize.

Faneca, the longtime Steelers guard, remembers the day he hit a milestone of losing 30 pounds. He was playing on the floor with his daughter and he got up without having to "do the old-man grunt." "I just stood up, no problem," Faneca said. "And I was like, 'Wow, this is nice.'"

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Thomas said when he was 300 pounds, his body would ache if he had to stand for a few minutes. Gross said he hated the sweating. "I would just sweat profusely all the time," he lamented. "My wife would have hypothermia from me having the room so cold all the time."

Hardwick, a center with the then-San Diego Chargers who maxed out at 308, said his initial motivation to lose weight was to relieve pressure from his body. (According to the April issue of the Harvard Medical School newsletter, each additional pound you carry places about 4 pounds of stress on the knee joints.)

"But then there's this material aspect to it," Hardwick said. "You want to be able to wear cooler clothes, and go into stores and start shopping off the rack. And that's alluring for a while. Then that wears off, and you settle in, and people stop freaking out every time they see you. And you just become comfortable once again in your own skin."

Staley, albeit sheepishly, admits he likes the fact that his muscles are getting defined.

"As an offensive lineman, you're always known as this big, humongous, unathletic blob," Staley said. "Offensive linemen get casted in a movie, and they're always 500 pounds. Then you get the opportunity to be healthy again, and all of the effort you used to put into football, you put into that. It gives you a focus once you retire. It's a little bit vain, but I'm starting to see abs that I've always wanted. And it's kind of exciting."

There are two types of offensive linemen: those who must artificially add the pounds on, and those who are naturally big.

"I'm the latter," said Damien Woody, a longtime NFL lineman and current ESPN analyst. "I could literally breathe and inhale and gain 5 pounds." During a summer growth spurt after his sophomore year of high school, Woody grew 6 inches and gained 70 pounds. By the time he got to Boston College, he already weighed 300. "It was never a problem for me to put weight on," he said.

The other group? Gaining weight can become an all-consuming sport, which often begins in the collegiate years. Consider Hardwick, who wrestled in the 171-pound weight class in high school. He enrolled at Purdue on a ROTC scholarship, got a tryout for the football team and ballooned to 295 by slathering 2 pounds of ground beef on multiple tortillas at dinner. Hardwick also downed a 600- or 700-calorie protein shake before bed and set his alarm to drink a similar one at 3 a.m.

At this year's NFL combine, Ben Bartch was fetishized after talking about his go-to smoothie: seven scrambled eggs, "a big tub" of cottage cheese, grits, peanut butter, a banana and Gatorade. A daily dose of that concoction added 59 pounds to Bartch's 6-foot-6 frame, helping him morph from a third-string Division III tight end at St. John's (Minnesota) to a fourth-round pick of the Jacksonville Jaguars as an offensive lineman.

"I would just throw it all in and then plug my nose," Bartch said. "In the dark. I would gag sometimes. That's what you have to do sometimes."

Chris Bober, a former New York Giants and Kansas City Chiefs lineman, showed up at the University of Nebraska-Omaha at 225 pounds, which was too small. He ate everything he could get his hands on, which was difficult as a college student "who was pretty broke." It was especially challenging over the summers, when he inherently burned calories at his construction job. If Bober went to Subway, he wouldn't just buy one foot-long sub -- he'd get two. At Taco John's, his order was a 12-pack of tacos and a pound of potato oles, which adds up to a nearly 5,000-calorie lunch.

When Thomas was at Wisconsin, any player trying to gain weight could grab a 10-ounce to-go carton of heavy whipping cream with added sugars and whey protein after a workout. He surmises the dairy-forward drink went for about 1,000 calories a pop -- and he chased it with a 50-gram protein shake on his way to class.

Like Hardwick, Staley -- who went from 215 pounds to 295 at Central Michigan, as he transitioned from tight end to the offensive line -- used to set an alarm for himself every day at 2 a.m. "I had these premade weight-gainer shakes; they were probably 2,000 calories each," Staley said. "I'd wake myself up in the middle of the night, down that, go back to bed."

Although Staley worked with his college strength coach to make sure he was putting on "good weight" -- gaining muscle without unnecessary body fat -- the unnatural eating habits took a toll. "I was bloated for four years straight," Staley said. "You know when you overeat after a really nice dinner at an Italian restaurant, you just eat all these courses and leave feeling gross? That's how I felt the entire time in college."

Staley no longer fit into the clothes he arrived at Central Michigan with but couldn't afford to buy new ones, so he was constantly borrowing from teammates. Most offensive linemen admit they pretty much lived in team-issued sweats. "I'm lucky, in the late 1990s, early 2000s, everything baggy was in style," Gross said. "So from 250 to 300, it wasn't a massive wardrobe change. The waist got big, but elastic drawstrings were my best friend."

The habits continue in the NFL. Many older players credit the 2011 collective bargaining agreement, which banned training camp two-a-days, as a turning point. Before then, it felt like their college days. "If I was doing two-a-days, in the summer in South Carolina, going up against Julius Peppers, I was for sure burning 10,000 calories," Gross said.

So at the end of each day in training camp at Wofford College, Gross counted to 15 one-thousands on the soft-serve machine, then blended that with four cups of whole milk, plus three homemade chocolate cookies (which Gross believes were about 850 calories each) and Hershey's chocolate syrup. "That's all inflammatory foods, like sugar and dairy," he said, "I'm not going to say it's horrible; it was pretty awesome to eat that stuff. But you're putting so much demand on your digestive system. I always had gas. I always had to use the bathroom. I was bloated because I was so full all the time."

There's a common refrain among offensive linemen: If you don't lose weight in your first year out of the league, you're probably not going to lose it.

Four years after retiring, Woody weighed 388 pounds and agreed to appear on NBC's "The Biggest Loser." Instead of heavy lifting and concentrating on explosive bursts, Woody was asked to do longer cardio and train for endurance. "It was totally different from what I had learned to do and had trained to do my entire life," Woody said. "And it was hard. Like, man, it was really tough."

Woody lost 100 pounds on the show -- then gained it all back.

So he just accepted his weight, until this past year, when the 42-year-old renovated his basement into an exercise room. "I wanted to lose weight the right way," Woody said. "In a sustainable way."

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Woody lured in his wife and kids to join his mission. On Sunday nights, they meal prep. And every day Woody goes down to the basement to stay active. His prefers the Peloton bike -- "I hit that hard," he said -- but also uses the row machine, and does "all different types of exercises so I don't get bored." While he still lifts weights, he focuses on lighter options and higher reps. "I'm not putting any weight on my back anymore; I'm not lifting excessive weight to potentially hurt myself," Woody said. "Because that's not the point anymore."

On June 14, Woody tweeted that he was down 50 pounds since March 23 "and my joints are already jumping for joy."

It isn't easy. And for many years, players have felt like they're on their own in their weight-loss journey.

"The NFL doesn't give you any guidance on how to do it," Bober said. "They're just like, 'OK, see ya!' You need to take it upon yourself to figure it out. And as I've gotten older and older, I've noticed it does become more and more difficult to manage if you haven't lost it right away."

Shortly after the last CBA in 2011, the NFL Players Association launched "The Trust," which interim executive director Kelly Mehrtens describes as a VIP concierge service of benefits players can take advantage of as they transition outside of the league. As part of a holistic approach, the Trust invites players to Exos (where they can train, get physical therapy and undergo a nutrition consultation), offers them YMCA memberships and arranges physicals and consultations with specialists at hospitals across the country.

The Trust, Mehrtens explains, is all about figuring out why certain guys transition to their post-playing lives more successfully than others, and how they could help bridge the gap. "These are earned benefits," Mehrtens said. "So we want to make sure guys take advantage of something they've already earned."

Dr. Roberts' Living Heart Foundation, a partner of the NFLPA, does health screenings for former players three times per year. Anyone with a BMI of 35 or over is invited to join a six-month program called The Biggest Loser (although this one isn't televised). So far, roughly 50 players have gone through it. Most are in their 40s, with the oldest participant 80 years old. "It just shows it's never too late to find motivation to reach your goals," lead trainer Erik Beshore said.

Beshore said most who enrolled in The Biggest Loser program are diabetic or pre-diabetic. However, after six months, as they commit to sustainable lifestyle changes, many have gone off their insulin, eliminated their blood pressure medication, gotten better sleep and reported overall better moods.

"It's amazing how many of them can lose the weight all these years later," Roberts said. "But in terms of if they can reverse the damage that may have occurred in the interim period form when they played football at large size to years later, it's hard to quantitate because we don't have long-term data yet."

To slim down, Staley cut out most carbs, besides vegetables. He purged his house of his favorite vice, chips and salsa, and now snacks on raw broccoli and Bitchin' Sauce -- an almond-based vegan dip. Staley said he now eats with purpose and moderation. "In the NFL, I always ate when I was hungry and whatever was available," he said. "If it was salmon, great. If it was frozen pizza, I'd eat that too."

Hawley, who retired in 2018, donated most of his material possessions to charity and has been living out of a van and Airbnb's across the country. He said it was all about reconditioning his brain to eat only until he feels full, and not eating until he can't eat anymore. Intermittent fasting has been a huge tool for the 6-foot-3 Hawley, who is down 60 pounds to 240. He rarely eats breakfast and tries to do one 24-hour fast per week -- eating dinner at 6 or 7 p.m., and then not eating at all until 6 or 7 p.m. the following night. Sometimes he even challenges himself to a 36-hour fast.

Hawley has connected with other ex-big guys, such as Hardwick, whom he met at "Bridge to Success," a NFL-run transition program for retired players.

"But it's not as big of a community as I would like," Hawley said. "I'm actually working on creating an online community for guys. That's one thing I've been missing. I went through my whole life being part of a locker room with a team, and then you get into the real world at 30, and nobody really knows what that experience is like."

Hardwick said he's working on an e-book with a blueprint of his diet plan for people who want to lose weight quickly and keep it off.

Many players interviewed for this story said while they do feel better and like the way they look, rapid weight loss has led to unsightly stretch marks and excess, saggy skin (which one player, wishing to stay anonymous, said he had cosmetically removed). Hardwick and Gross also warn of something that happened to them: They got so obsessed with losing the weight that it went too far.

Hardwick remembers weighing himself after a hot yoga class in January 2015. The scale read 202 pounds. "Great," he thought to himself. "Another 3 pounds, and it will be 199." But then he got a glance of his profile in the mirror, and he didn't recognize himself.

"If the apocalypse came, there was no way I could defend me or my family," he said. Hardwick went home and started binge eating to overcorrect. He has hovered between 220 and 230 since, which he thinks is a healthy weight for him.

Gross experimented for a while. He was vegetarian for a year and then tried the paleo diet. "You don't have any wiggle room when you're playing -- you just have to eat to keep the weight on," he said. "So I thought it was exciting to try different things." Once Gross got down to 250, he noticed an immense pain relief in his feet and ankles, which were swollen his last few years in the league -- but due to weight, not injury.

When Gross began his transformation, he went to Old Navy and bought three pairs of shorts and two polo shirts. He didn't know where his weight loss would lead him, and he didn't want to waste money. Gross got all the way down to 225, but restricting himself to under 2,500 calories a day didn't feel like a sustainable lifestyle. "That was too much," he said. As he gets ready to turn 40 this summer, Gross eats about 3,200 calories a day and is back to lifting weights. He now happily hovers around 240 pounds.

As for Thomas? As his career wound down, he began consulting with Katy Meassick, the Browns' nutritionist, who began educating him on healthier habits. They came up with a post-retirement plan, which Thomas describes as "low-carb or keto diet, with intermittent fasting." He added swimming and biking as cardio, along with yoga.

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Thomas, too, had to recondition his brain to stop eating when he was full. Throughout his football career, he had taught his subconscious to go beyond that point and keep stuffing his face with family-size McDonald's orders and sugary drinks. It's a new kind of discipline. Now every Monday, Thomas and his wife, Annie, will try to fast for 24 hours. Because of his previous line of work, it's not such a hard transition.

"As an offensive lineman, you just do the grunt work forever and you do the crap nobody wants to do -- our position is the Mushroom Club. We're used to being s--- on a truck in a dark room, and everyone expects us to go out and perform for no glory whatsoever," Thomas said.

"And you almost miss that misery. It's almost a weird thing to say, but getting into the fasting world and trying to discipline yourself and do something that is hard, in a weird, sick way, [that's something] I think a lot of offensive linemen get."

How NFL offensive linemen escape the 5,000-calorie lunch and transform in retirement - ESPN

There isn’t a one size fits all approach to weight management – Pulse

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

In some areas,potentially 50-60% of patients will have obesity. At the moment, weight management services are incredibly patchy and for the most part of very little value.

We know that only 5% of people who have obesity will lose weight and maintain that weight loss forever. So unless significant input is put into effective weight management - which includes psychology, proper nutritional information, obesity medicine and bariatricsurgery - then there is really very little point in doing any of this.

Obesity, for the most part - and as recognised by the Royal College of Physicians - is a chronic, relapsing, remitting disease. It is not a temporary state of affairs.

Obesity is not a temporary state of affairs

So saying refer all your patients to weight management - there arent the services to send them to, so thats not possible without massive investment when you think of the number of patients this is going to involve. And we know that patients want to discusstheir weight or obesity, but it needs to be discussed in the right way.

We have to reduce the stigma and recognise obesity as a chronic disease and we need to invest in evidence-based treatment for the long-term management of obesity - not exercise prescriptions and slimming world.

We know that if you have obesity, there is a higher chance of having hypertension and diabetes as well, but again you have to have evidence-based proper treatment for the BMI, and the hypertension and diabetes may or may not then be helped as well.

There isnt a one-size fits all treatment.

DrStephanie deGiorgio is a GP in Kent

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There isn't a one size fits all approach to weight management - Pulse

Gemma Collins shows off her lockdown weight loss in white summer dress as she goes shopping in Essex – The Sun

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

GEMMA Collins indulges in some retail therapy as she shows off her slimmer figure in a summery white dress.

The 39-year-old star hit the shops in her local Essex wearing the cotton midi dress, Adidas sliders and wearing her long platinum blonde hair swept back in a low ponytail.


Gemma chatted on her mobile and carried her car keys in one hand before popping into the pharmacy for supplies.

The summer dress allowed the former Towie star to show off her more svelte figure as she continues her incredible weight loss journey.

She has managed toshed three stone and has been showing off her new body on Instagram.

Gemma revealed to The Sun Online, one of the main reasons she was losing weight is so she could become a mum by the time she turned 40.




The reality favourite has lost weight on the advice of doctors to help her get pregnant and she is already dreaming of life as a yummy mummy.

Gemma, who's known as The GC, told The Sun: I would love to have a child.

It would be great for me and such a positive message for all the girls out there who dont want to rush their life or their life has taken different a direction, like me whos put their career first.

Im going to be up there with them all Mariah Carey, Madonna, Kylie Minogue and Jennifer Aniston.


Dont write us off yet. Were just beginning.

Gemma is in a relationship with long-term on/off boyfriendJames Arg Argent, 32, who is recovering from cocaine addiction, as revealed in The Sun last month.

He laterthanked Gemma publicly for giving him tough loveat the height of his drug habit and not hiding it from his family.

Over the past year she has had regular consultations with her doctor about the prospect of getting pregnant, having suffered a number of miscarriages in her thirties.


Gemma has been reassured she can have children but losing weight will increase her chances of conceiving and having a healthier pregnancy.

Another complication in Gemmas pregnancy journey is that she hasPolycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS), which triggers irregular periods, excess male hormones and enlarged ovaries.

Gemma was 28 when she was diagnosed with the condition after becoming alarmed by sudden weight gain. She says: I was always very slim. But I really started piling on the weight and Ill never forget it.

I said to my mum, Have you shrunk my clothes?. She said, I hate to break this to you, but youre putting on weight.


According to the NHS, one in five women in the UK has PCOS. It is said to be hereditary and in severe cases sufferers can be left with excessive hair growth and acne.

Gemma has spent the last three months in lockdown with brother Russell and his family and recently revealed she is on the brink of buying her dream house in Essex - after a tree told her to do it.

Speaking on The Gemma Collins Podcast on BBC Sounds, she said: By chance I was on a bike ride one day with my brother and he said, Look at this (house), and I just knew. So Im in the process of buying my first home.

Its so weird, I knew it was the house for me because literally when I rode up to the house on my bike there was this tree, and it was a rather big tree, and I felt like the tree was talking to me. It moved in this way, it was like whispering to me.


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I went back to the house a few times. Every time I go back to the house, the one tree greets me and its beautiful. Thats when I knew it was the house for me.

When I see this tree, I truly believe weve got a bond. This tree is telling me, Gemma youre meant to be here. I dont know why but it gives me huge comfort.

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Gemma Collins shows off her lockdown weight loss in white summer dress as she goes shopping in Essex - The Sun

Eating too much sugar: Effects and symptoms – Medical News Today

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

In the short-term, eating too much sugar may contribute to acne, weight gain, and tiredness. In the long-term, too much sugar increases the risk of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), people in the United States consume too much added sugar. Added sugars are sugars that manufacturers add to food to sweeten them.

In this article, we look at how much added sugar a person should consume, the symptoms and impact of eating too much sugar, and how someone can reduce their sugar intake.

According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010-2015, on average, Americans consume 17 teaspoons (tsp) of added sugar each day. This adds up to 270 calories.

However, the guidelines advise that people limit added sugars to less than 10% of their daily calorie intake. For a daily intake of 2,000 calories, added sugar should account for fewer than 200 calories.

However, in 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised that people eat half this amount, with no more than 5% of their daily calories coming from added sugar. For a diet of 2,000 calories per day, this would amount to 100 calories, or 6 tsp, at the most.

Some people experience the following symptoms after consuming sugar:

Consuming too much sugar can also contribute to long-term health problems.

Sugar feeds bacteria that live in the mouth. When bacteria digest the sugar, they create acid as a waste product. This acid can erode tooth enamel, leading to holes or cavities in the teeth.

People who frequently eat sugary foods, particularly in between mealtimes as snacks or in sweetened drinks, are more likely to develop tooth decay, according to Action on Sugar, part of the Wolfson Institute in Preventive Medicine in the United Kingdom.

A 2018 study of university students in China showed that those who drank sweetened drinks seven times per week or more were more likely to develop moderate or severe acne.

Additionally, a 2019 study suggests that lowering sugar consumption may decrease insulin-like growth factors, androgens, and sebum, all of which may contribute to acne.

Sugar can affect the hormones in the body that control a persons weight. The hormone leptin tells the brain a person has had enough to eat. However, according to a 2008 animal study, a diet high in sugar may cause leptin resistance.

This may mean, that over time, a high sugar diet prevents the brain from knowing when a person has eaten enough. However, researchers have yet to test this in humans.

A 2013 article in PLOS ONE, indicated that high sugar levels in the diet might cause type 2 diabetes over time.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) add that other risk factors, such as obesity and insulin resistance, can also lead to type 2 diabetes.

A large prospective study in 2014 found that people who got 1721% of their daily calories from added sugar had a 38% higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who consumed 8% added sugars. For those who consumed 21% or more of their energy from added sugars, their risk for CVD doubled.

In a 2011 study, researchers found a link between sugar-sweetened beverages and high blood pressure, or hypertension. A review in Pharmacological Research states that hypertension is a risk factor for CVD. This may mean that sugar exacerbates both conditions.

Excess sugar consumption can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity. These factors influence a persons risk of developing cancer.

A review of studies in the Annual Review of Nutrition found a 23200% increased cancer risk with sugary drink consumption. Another study found a 59% increased risk of some cancers in people who consumed sugary drinks and carried weight around their abdomen.

Excess sugar in the diet leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which play a role in diabetes. However, they also affect collagen formation in the skin.

According to Skin Therapy Letter, there is some evidence to suggest that a high number of AGEs may lead to faster visible aging. However, scientists need to study this in humans more thoroughly to understand the impact of sugar in the aging process.

A person can reduce the amount of added sugar they eat by:

Added sugar and sweeteners come in many forms. Ingredients to look out for on a food label include:

Some of these ingredients are natural sources of sugar and are not harmful in small amounts. However, when manufacturers add them to food products, a person might easily consume too much sugar without realizing it.

Some food products contain large amounts of added sugars. Reducing or removing these foods is an efficient way to reduce the amount of sugar a person eats.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 20102015 state that soda and other soft drinks account for around half a persons added sugar intake in the U.S. The average can of soda or fruit punch provides 10 tsp of sugar.

Another common source of sugar is breakfast cereal. According to EWG, many popular cereals contain over 60% sugar by weight, with some store brands containing over 80% sugar. This is especially true of cereals marketed towards children.

Swapping these foods for unsweetened alternatives will help a person lower their sugar intake, for example:

Manufacturers often add sugars to foods to make them more appealing. Often, this means people do not realize how much sugar a food contains.

By avoiding processed foods, a person can get a better sense of what their food contains. Cooking whole foods at home also means someone can control what ingredients they put into their meals.

People should see their doctor if they experience the symptoms of high blood sugar. According to the NIDDK, symptoms include:

These symptoms may indicate a person has diabetes. A doctor can test for diabetes by taking a urine sample.

People should also speak to a doctor if they experience other symptoms after eating sugar, such as bloating.

Consuming too much added sugar has many adverse impacts on health, including tiredness and weight gain, and more severe conditions, such as heart disease. Added sugars are present in many processed foods and drinks.

People can reduce their sugar intake by knowing what to look for on food labels, avoiding or reducing common sources of sugar, such as soda and cereals, and prioritizing unprocessed whole foods.

If a person is concerned about weight gain, symptoms that may indicate diabetes, or other symptoms they experience after eating sugar, they should speak to a doctor.

Read the original post:
Eating too much sugar: Effects and symptoms - Medical News Today

Galway PT shares tips for fussy eaters who want to change diet and lose weight – RSVP Live

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

When it comes to losing weight, we are all aware of what two factors will produce results - exercise and diet.

You may need to improve your fitness levels and be more active in your daily life to shift unwanted pounds.

And while exercise is a crucial part of the process, joining a gym only to eat a diet that is lacking in necessary nutrients will be of no value to you.

Changing up diets isnt a big deal to some people, but if youre a fussy eater, it can be a daunting task.

Introducing new foods you do not like the taste or texture of into your eating plan can be a major turn-off for some people and even make them hesitant to start their weight loss journey.

RSVP Live spoke to personal trainer Dylan McDonnell, who is based in Galway, about how fussy eaters can be more open to trying healthier foods.

Some of the PTs clients are picky when it comes to food, and he has some steady advice on what they can do to change their mindset.

Its not that we need to completely revamp the diet and go from one extreme to the next, he says.

Were not going to take out everything you enjoy and put in all of these things that youre unsure about or wont enjoy.

Its more about looking at your diet with an inclusive mindset rather than an exclusive one.

Dylan notes that its important to add nutritional foods to the diet if youre seriously lacking, but believes there is no need to cut out perhaps less healthier foods as its not practical.

He says: I always say when clients come to me that it is all about approaching it from an inclusive point of view, so there is no client that ever comes to me that we take out all of the things they enjoy because its not something theyre going to sustain.

Keeping something in that you have in your diet everyday that you enjoy, keeps a normality in the diet and allows you to stay on track and adhere to it in the long-term.

We know if we put someone eating chicken, broccoli and rice, all of those clean foods of course theyre going to lose weight.

But people wont stick to it, it's not a sustainable thing, so its finding something they can adhere to and still get the results.

Knowing that not every food has to leave your diet can be comforting news to fussy eaters, but how do you include different things youre unsure of eating?

Dylan recommends exploring different recipes and cooking methods to get the best out of foods picky people may avoid, such as vegetables.

If you had a bad experience eating food prepared one way, try cooking or seasoning it a completely different way.

People relate vegetables and foods like that to maybe the way they were fed it when they were younger - perhaps theyre parents found it easier to just boil them, he explains.

But there are so many different options - roasts, stir-fries, adding seasonings, putting low-calorie sauces on, mixing them in with other foods, smoothies, juices.

Dont avoid a food because you think there is just one option - there are so many different ways to prepare.

For more information and fitness tips, you can follow Dylan on Instagram here - @dylanmcdpt. You can also listen to his Pursuit of Healthiness podcast wherever you get your podcasts.

Continue reading here:
Galway PT shares tips for fussy eaters who want to change diet and lose weight - RSVP Live

Have you experienced foot pain while staying home? Doctors explain why – The National

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

Having a good start to the day is all about waking up on the right side of the bed. But what about if, when you place your feet on the ground for the first time in the morning, you're met with excruciating pain?

The long-term repercussions that being housebound might have on our health are still being evaluated. And one surprising, and underrated, problem is how being at home for hours on end can impact our foot health.

A sedentary lifestyle, weight gain and loss of stretching gives rise to foot stiffness and plantar fasciitis

Dr Harpal Jadeja

As Dr Harpal Jadeja, consultant orthopaedic surgeon at Medcare Orthopaedics and Spine Hospital, puts it: We use our feet every day to get us around without thinking about them. They bear our weight, keep our balance and adapt to uneven surfaces, helping us move around and engage in day-to-day activities and sports. Despite the vital role they play, our feet, unfortunately, remain neglected until we feel pain and need relief.

According to Dr Jadeja, being homebound for months on end is having an impact on our feet, both in positive and negative ways.

By staying indoors, we have reduced our walking and weight-bearing activities. On one hand, this helps in the case of painful conditions like bunions and heel pain, he says. It also reduces the risk of foot-related injuries like sprains and fractures.

However, it can also lead to problems in the long run. Inactivity over a period of time can increase body weight which can lead to more degenerative changes in the weight-bearing joints, says Dr Jadeja. "Staying indoors also increases domestic chores such as cooking and washing dishes that require standing for a prolonged period. This may aggravate heel pain from plantar fasciitis."

Dr Prabodhan Pravin Potdar, specialist orthopaedics at Burjeel Day Surgery Centre, Al Reem Island, adds that there are many ways our feet are affected by the isolation period.

Lack of space around the house can lead to toe injuries. Meanwhile, a sedentary lifestyle, weight gain and loss of stretching gives rise to foot stiffness and plantar fasciitis.

According to both doctors, heel pain, like that caused by plantar fasciitis, is one of the most common foot complaints at the moment.

It occurs when the plantar fascia, a thick band of protective tissue attached to the heel bone that fans out to the toes, is partially stretched or torn, leading to an inflammation of the tissue.

Tiles do not offer significant grip and the chances of having micro tears in the plantar fascia are quite high

Dr Prabodhan Pravin Potdar

Some of the most common causes of the condition are excessive activity, inactivity and sudden increase in weight over a short period of time. "It's ironic," says Dr Potdar, "because doing too much as well as doing too little might lead to this condition." And the prolonged isolation period may not be helping.

According to him, walking barefoot on hard tiles around the house contributes to the issue. Tiles do not offer significant grip and the chances of having micro tears in the plantar fascia are quite high, he says.

It can all lead to symptoms like a sharp, throbbing pain in the morning when one first places their feet on the floor. This pain might gradually improve with movement over the day. Other symptoms of the condition include a constant ache and stiffness of the foot, and swelling around the heel and sole.

Dr Potdar says wearing indoor footwear that has a firm grip can help. Carpeting also helps if it is throughout the house. Other treatments for plantar fasciitis include using a hot compress to increase blood flow to the area and enhance the healing of the micro tears. Stretching also helps, both from physiotherapy and from certain yoga positions.

"Avoid jumping or running during these episodes, and weight reduction by dietary means can also help. Visiting an orthopaedic surgeon is essential to confirm diagnosis since other less common conditions may present similarly."

Dr Jadeja recommends also having adequate rest during this period. "This is one thing that that will help many painful conditions of the foot and ankle, especially where injury and inflammation is concerned. Massage is also recommended."

If the pain persists, contact your doctor. When it comes to plantar fasciitis, physiotherapy and surgery may have to be recommended.

Finally, even as restrictions ease and more people get back to their normal lives, doctors recommend exercising precaution. Individuals getting back to active lifestyles after periods of inactivity run the risk of sustaining stress fractures or acute tendinitis, says Potdar.

Always better to be safe than sorry.

Updated: July 6, 2020 08:40 AM

See original here:
Have you experienced foot pain while staying home? Doctors explain why - The National

Exclusive: Taapsee Pannu’s Nutritionist shares about acid reflux and the RIGHT way to treat it – PINKVILLA

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

Taapsee Pannu's Nutritionist Munmun Ganeriwal has shared important details about one of the common health issues called acid reflux.

Acid reflux is one of the common ailments that many people across the world suffer from. It happens when contents from our stomach move upwards in our esophagus. If the signs of acid reflux persist more than twice a week, then it means you may have a condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is very important to treat it as it can lead to other health complications. Heartburn, sour or bitter taste, difficulty swallowing, breathing issues, at the back of the mouth, bloating, dysphagia, burping, hiccups, nausea, weight loss, wheezing, dry cough and hoarseness are the common signs.

We asked Taapsee Pannu's Nutritionist Munmun Ganeriwal who is a Nutrition and Lifestyle Consultant, and Founder- Yuktahaar about acid reflux in detail and simple lifestyle changes to deal with it. She said, "The problem of acid reflux or heartburn is becoming more and more common. In my practice, I have realized that most people dont consider it a serious issue and hence, without thinking much, they pop an antacid and go about their day as usual. Until they realize that popping pills isnt helping in the long term and acid reflux no matter how insignificant an ailment it appears to be, does affect the overall quality of life."

"When I started working with Taapsee Pannu a few years back on her diet, getting to know how to deal with her acidity was one of the priorities for her. And why not? For an actress who is busy working round the clock, travels across time zones threw in, having to deal with the uncomfortable burning sensation from an acidic reflux every now and then would most certainly make life pretty difficult."

"Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines like Protein Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce your body's production of acid are great for symptom management, but long-term use of acid-suppressing medications can lead to nutrient deficiencies and increase your risk of food sensitivities/ intolerances, serious gut infections, mood imbalances like depression, anxiety and so on."

"Resorting to an antacid or acid-suppressing medication is like taking the batteries out of a beeping smoke detector and just wishing that all will be well. It may help with symptoms suppression, but the problem is far from being fixed by going this route. For digestive issues, we need to identify and work on root cause factors if achieving long term relief is the goal."

"Just within a few months of gut balancing protocol, Taapsees chronic acidity issue was resolved and like any other concerned daughter, she also got her mom to sign up with me so that we can work on her gut health too. In fact, during our recent Instagram live conversation, we discussed the issue of acid reflux in brief so that her fans and followers could benefit from it. Today, I am sharing my list of five major Dos and Donts for stomach acidity that both Taapsee and her mom continue to follow till today."

DOS AND DONTS by Nutritionist Munmun Ganeriwal:

DONT- Do not skip meals or have long meal gaps

DO- Make sure you have planned your meals & eat every 2-3 hours

HERES WHY- It is assumed that acid reflux is caused by overactive or high stomach acid levels but paradoxically, more often than not, it is due to not having enough stomach acid. When acid levels are low, food gets into the stomach but isnt fully broken down. Decreased digestion causes fermentation of food, gas production and starts pushing through the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES), causing acid reflux. One of the best ways to ensure optimal stomach acid production is to eat every 2-3 hours because every time you don't eat for long hours, the body produces less stomach acid leading to heartburn symptoms and conditions like GERD.

DONT- Do not eat till you are stuffed

DO- Eat only till you feel light and comfortable. A good way to begin is to eat five spoons lesser than you would have.

HERES WHY- Large quantities of food distend the stomach causing the valve (LES valve) between the stomach and food pipe to not close properly. This allows the acid in your stomach to travel upward. Remember the antacid TV ad of son-in-law overeating only to get nausea and acidity later?

DONT- Do not eat close to bedtime

DO- Eat your last meal of the day 2-3 hours before you go to bed

HERES WHY- Lying down soon after you eat triggers the backflow of acidic stomach contents into your food pipe causing heartburn and acidity.

DONT- Do not be deprived of sleep

DO- Make sure you get restful sleep for 7-8 hours.

HERES WHY- Sleeplessness can cause the valve between the stomach & food pipe to function improperly, allowing the acid in your stomach to travel upward.

DONT- Do not make friends with chronic stress

DO- Practice deep breathing and relaxation techniques every day

HERES WHY- Chronic stress not only decreases the production of stomach acid but also over activates the sympathetic nervous system that can hamper digestion and lead to acid reflux. Practicing deep breathing techniques will help you relax and cool off the over-activated nervous system.

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Exclusive: Taapsee Pannu's Nutritionist shares about acid reflux and the RIGHT way to treat it - PINKVILLA

7 reasons why kissing is good for health and why we should kiss more often – Hindustan Times

Jul, 6th 2020 7:49 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

7 reasons why kissing is good for health and why we should kiss more often - health - Hindustan Times "; forYoudata += ""; forYoudata += ""; forYoudata += ""; count++; if (i === 7) { return false; } }); forYouApiResponse=forYoudata; $(forutxt).html('Recommended for you'); $(foruContent).html(forYoudata); } } }); } else if(forYouApiResponse!=''){ $(forutxt).html('Recommended for you'); $(foruContent).html(forYouApiResponse); } } function getUserData(){ $.ajax({ url:""+user_token, type:"GET", dataType:"json", success: function(res){ if(res.length>0) { $("[id^=loggedin]").each(function(){ $(this).hide(); }); } } }); } function postUserData(payLoad, elm){ var msgelm=$(elm).parents(".subscribe-update").nextAll("#thankumsg"); $.ajax({ url:"", type:"POST", data:payLoad, contentType: "application/json", dataType: "json", success: function(res){ if(res.success===true){ $(msgelm).show(); $("[id^=loggedin]").each(function(){ $(this).css("display","none"); }); $("[id^=loggedout]").each(function(){ $(this).css("display","none"); 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Read more:
7 reasons why kissing is good for health and why we should kiss more often - Hindustan Times

Study shows that telecardiac rehab can help adherence, exercise capacity – The Jerusalem Post

Jul, 5th 2020 3:46 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

A new clinical study has found that telecardiac rehabilitation (tele-CR) can improve adherence and exercise capacity among patients of cardiac rehabilitation, providing a viable alternative to center-based rehabilitation programs, according to a Thursday press release from Datos Health, a provider of hospital-grade automated remote care and telemedicine platforms.

The study, titled Feasibility, Safety, and Effectiveness of a Mobile Application in Cardiac Rehabilitation, was published in the Israel Medical Association Journal (IMAJ), and focused on evaluating clinical and physiological results, in addition to patient adherence, as a means for assessing the viability of tele-CR as an alternative to location-based programs in medical centers.

The six-month trial was performed at Shebas Cardiac Rehabilitation Center, as a first attempt to use digital health technology to monitor patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation.

In response to the findings, Prof. Robert Klempfner, MD, Director of the Israeli Center for Cardiovascular Research and Scientific Director of the ARC Innovation Center at Sheba Medical Center, said that despite the clear benefits of CR in reducing cardiac moralities and improving overall quality of life, it is often woefully underutilized for reasons including challenges in attending rehabilitation centers and interference with day-to-day life.

He added that the findings of this study reveal considerable advantages of tele-CR in the increase of adherence to exercise programs and improved patient outcomes. The versatility of Datos remote care platform and its ability to increase patient engagement and adherence through personalization of the application is integral to making tele-CR a viable option for patients unable or unwilling to participate in center-based CR programs.

The results of the study showed that significant improvements were seen in exercise capacity and consistent adherence among CR patients, with over 63% completing the goal of 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week. Similarly, patient satisfaction was favorable, scoring 4.05 out of 5 among participants.

The system was based on patients receiving a smartphone application with a customized care plan, including monitoring devices that provide medical feedback during training. Datos was responsible for developing the application, whereby a care team would monitor patient activity and adherence. The study's success has resulted in Israel's Health Ministry defining a new reimbursement code.

As shown by the [Israeli] Ministry of Healths actions, this can also effect positive regulatory change. However, success of such programs is dependent on developing strong partnerships between healthcare organizations and technology developers. Datos has enjoyed a long-standing relationship with Prof. Klempfner and his team at Sheba. This collaboration is further evidence of how together we can bring positive change to the provision of care for the benefit of large patient populations, Bettesh noted.

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Study shows that telecardiac rehab can help adherence, exercise capacity - The Jerusalem Post

Whos Insuring the Trans Mountain Pipeline? – EcoWatch

Jul, 5th 2020 3:45 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

To understand what it will take to move forward, Food Tank has compiled its summer reading list to delve into the issues that affect our food system today. These 20 books provide insight into food access and justice in Black communities, food relief and school nutrition programs, the effects of technology on global food supply chains, the relationship between climate change and food production, and much more.

1.Be My Guest: Reflections on Food, Community, and the Meaning of Generosityby Priya Basil (forthcoming November 2020)

Priya Basil explores the meaning of hospitality within a variety of cultural, linguistic, and sociopolitical contexts in this short read. Basil uses her cross-cultural experience to illustrate how food amplifies discourse within families and touches on the hospitality and the lack thereof that migrants and refugees experience. Be My Guest is at once an enjoyable read and a hopeful meditation on how food and hospitality can make a positive difference in our world.

2.Biodiversity, Food and Nutrition: A New Agenda for Sustainable Food Systemsby Danny Hunter, Teresa Borelli, and Eliot Gee

In Biodiversity, Food and Nutrition, leading professionals from Bioversity International examine the positive impacts of biodiversity on nutrition and sustainability. The book highlights agrobiodiversity initiatives in Brazil, Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Turkey, featuring research from the Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition Project (BFN) of the Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT. Through this analysis, the authors propose that the localized activities in these countries are not only benefiting communities, but are transferable to other regions.

3.Black Food Geographies: Race, Self-Reliance, and Food Access in Washington, Ashant M. Reese

In Black Food Geographies, Ashant Reese draws on her fieldwork to highlight community agency in response to unequal food access. Focusing on a majority-Black neighborhood in Washington, DC, Reese explores issues of racism, gentrification, and urban food access. Through her analysis, she argues that racism impacts and exacerbates issues of unequal food distribution systems.

4.Black Food Matters: Racial Justice in the Wake of Food Justiceedited byHanna Garth and Ashant M. Reese (forthcoming October 2020)

Access, equity, justice, and privilege are the central themes in this forthcoming collection of essays. The food justice movement often ignores the voices of Black communities and white food norms shape the notions of healthy food. Named for Black Lives Matter, Black Food Matters highlights the history and impact of Black communities and their food cultures in the food justice movement.

5.Diners Dudes & Diets: How Gender and Power Collide in Food Media and Cultureby Emily J.H. Contois (forthcoming November 2020)

In Diners, Dudes & Diets, Emily Contois looks at media's influence on eating habits and gendered perceptions of food. Focusing on the concept of dude foods, the book follows the evolution of food marketing for men. In doing so, Contois shows how industries used masculine stereotypes to sell diet and weight loss products to a new demographic. She argues that this has influenced both the way consumers think about food and their own identities.

6.Feeding the Crisis: Care and Abandonment in Americas Food Safety Netby Maggie Dickinson

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is essential for individuals who face food insecurity on a daily basis. Still, the program fails to reach many, including those who are unemployed, underemployed, or undocumented. Feeding the Crisis provides a historical overview of SNAP's expansion and traces the lives of eight families who must navigate the changing landscape of welfare policy in the United States.

7.Feeding the Other: Whiteness, Privilege, and Neoliberal Stigma in Food Pantriesby Rebecca T. de Souza

In Feeding the Other, Rebecca de Souza explores the relationship between food pantries and people dependent on their services. Throughout the work, de Souza underscores the structural failures that contribute to hunger and poverty, the racial dynamics within pantries, and the charged idea of a handout. She argues that while food pantries currently stigmatize clients, there is an opportunity to make them agents of food justice.

8.Feeding the People: The Politics of the Potatoby Rebecca Earle

In Feeding the People, Rebecca Earle tells the story of the potato and its journey from a relatively unknown crop to a staple in modern diets around the world. Earle's work highlights the importance of the potato during famines, war, and explains the politics behind consumers' embrace of this food. Interspersed throughout are also potato recipes that any reader can try.

9.Food in Cuba: The Pursuit of a Decent Mealby Hanna Garth

In Food in Cuba, Dr. Hannah Garth looks at food security and food sovereignty in the context of Cuba's second largest city, Santiago de Cuba. Throughout the work, Garth defines a decent meal as one that is culturally appropriate and of high quality. And through stories about families' sociopolitical barriers to food access, Garth shows how ideas of food and moral character become intimately linked.

10.Franchise: The Golden Arches in Black Americaby Marcia Chatelain

Scholar, speaker, and strategist Marcia Chatelain provides readers insight into the ways fast food restaurants expanded throughout Black communities. Dr. Chatelain traces their growth during the 20th century and their intersection with Black capitalists and the civil rights movement. This book highlights the dichotomy between fast food's negative impacts on Black communities and the potential economic and political opportunities that the businesses offered them.

11.Honey And Venom: Confessions of an Urban Beekeeperby Andrew Cot

In Honey and Venom, Andrew Cot provides a history of beekeeping while taking the reader through his own trajectory in the industry. A manager of over one hundred beehives, Cot raises colonies across New York City, on the rooftops of churches, schools, and more. Cot's passion for beekeeping comes through clearly as he narrates the challenges and rewards of his career.

12.Life on the Other Border: Farmworkers and Food Justice in Vermontby Teresa M. Mares

Agriculture, immigration, and Central American and Mexican farm workers may conjure ideas of the Mexico-U.S. border, but in Life on the Other Border, Teresa Mares gives a voice to those laboring much farther north. Mares introduces the readers to the Latinx immigrants who work in Vermont's dairy industry while they advocate for themselves and navigate life as undocumented workers. This is an inspiring read that touches on the intersection of food justice, immigration, and labor policy.

13.Meals Matter: A Radical Economics Through Gastronomyby Michael Symons

In Meals Matter, Michael Symons argues that economics used to be, in its essence, about feeding the world but has since become fixated with the pursuit of money. Symons introduces readers to gastronomic liberalism and applies the ideas of philosophers like Epicurus and John Locke to the food system. Through this approach, he seeks to understand how large corporations gained control of the market and challenges readers to rethink their understanding of food economics.

14.No One is Too Small to Make a Differenceby Greta Thunberg

Greta Thunberg addressed the United Nations at the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit and has since been a global symbol of environmental activism. Her community organizing and impassioned speeches are uncompromising as she argues that climate change is an existential crisis that needs to be confronted immediately. No One Is Too Small to Make a Difference includes Thunberg's speeches and includes her 2019 address to the United Nations.

15.Perilous Bounty: The Looming Collapse of American Farming and How We Can Prevent Itby Tom Philpott (forthcoming August 2020)

In Perilous Bounty, journalist Tom Philpott critically analyzes the centralized food system in the U.S. and argues that it is headed for disaster unless it sees some much-needed changes. Philpot argues that actors within the U.S. food system are prioritizing themselves over the nation's wellbeing and provides well-researched data to back up his claims. Providing readers insight into the experiences of activists, farmers, and scientists, this is a great read for those starting to learn about the state of the country's food system and for those who are already deeply involved.

16.Plucked: Chicken, Antibiotics, And How Big Business Changed The Way The World Eatsby Maryn McKenna

In this expos on the chicken industry, acclaimed author Maryn McKenna explains the role antibiotics played in making chicken a global commodity. Plucked makes it clear that food choices matter and show how consumers' desire for meat, especially chicken, has impacted human health. McKenna also offers a way forward and outlines ways that stakeholders can make food safer again.

17.Stirrings: How Activist New Yorkers Ignited a Movement for Food Justiceby Lana Dee Povitz

Between 1970 and 2000, food activists in New York City pushed to improve public school lunches, provide meals to those impacted by the AIDS epidemic, and established food co-ops. In Stirrings, Lana Dee Povitz draws on oral histories and archives to recount the stories of individuals who led these efforts. She highlights the successes of grassroots movements and reminds readers of the many women leaders in the New York food justice movement.

18.The New American Farmer: Immigration, Race, and the Struggle for Sustainabilityby Laura-Anne Minkoff-Zern

In The New American Farmer, Laura-Anne Minkoff-Zern offers a look at farm labor in the U.S. Although most farm owners are white Americans, farm workers are overwhelmingly immigrants and people of color. In this book, Minkoff-Zern details the experiences of farm laborers who are becoming farm owners themselves and outlines the many barriers that workers must overcome during this transition. Through interviews with farmers and organizers, Minkoff-Zern shows that these farmers bring sustainable agricultural practices that can benefit our food system.

19.The Story of More: How We Got to Climate Change and Where to Go from Hereby Hope Jahren

Hope Jahren breaks down climate change for readers in an accessible and data-driven book. The Story of More explains how greenhouse gas emissions and consumption of natural resources in developed nations exacerbate climate change and outlines the consequences of these actions. Although she argues that the planet is in danger, she also provides a variety of everyday actions, like decreasing meat consumption, that consumers can take to make a difference.

20.Vegetable Kingdom: The Abundant World of Vegan Recipesby Bryant Terry

Author, chef, and food justice activist Bryant Terry provides readers with over a hundred recipes to create approachable and flavorful vegan dishes, without relying on meat alternatives. This book is a wonderfully practical recipe book that begins with a list of recommended tools, is organized by ingredients, and even includes a music playlist. Vegans and non-vegans alike will appreciate Chef Terry's Vegetable Kingdom.

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Whos Insuring the Trans Mountain Pipeline? - EcoWatch