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Vegetarian Diet | LoveToKnow

Mar, 6th 2018 10:42 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

Welcome to Vegetarian Diet where you’ll find a wealth of information related to vegetarian diets. In this category, you will learn about the basics of a plant-based diet, as well as the difference between vegan and lacto-ovo type vegetarian choices. If you ever wondered about the appropriateness of eggs and dairy products in a vegetarian eating plan, you will get your answers here. Similarly, we make it a priority to impart the necessary information for achieving balanced nutrition while embracing vegetarianism.

Meal planning to meet the needs of a vegetarian diet may seem overwhelming if you are new to its concept. However, we make it easy for you by offering great recipes to incorporate into your meal planning. You will discover how cooking vegetarian recipes can be simple and fun. A good place to begin your journey is with our collection of Easy Vegetarian Recipes. Whether you are a new vegetarian or a seasoned vegetarian, the recipes for sushi, lasagna, cookies, and desserts in this category are bound to become some of your favorites. We also offer you low-calorie and low-fat vegetarian recipes.

Nutritionists are available to answer all your diet questions at Diet and Nutrition Q & A.

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Vegetarian Diet | LoveToKnow

HCG And Testosterone: Benefits of hCG for Men

Mar, 5th 2018 2:40 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

If youre feeling less like a man these days, then human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) could be just what you need to amp up your life to rival your days as a teenager. But wait? Can men take hCG?

If youre tired, fat, and slow, then youre probably not feeling like yourself or the best you can be. For men, their prowess, confidence, and optimal overall wellness comes from below the belt. Whether directly or indirectly so, testosterone levels have everything to do with your ability to speed through your day, power through your workouts, burn off germs and colds, and impress in the bedroom. Although hCG has been touted for its weight loss benefits and its wonders on your physique, hCG and testosterone are inseparably connected and it has much more to offer men that have other desires needed to be fulfilled.

Discover where to buy HCG injections here.

hCG is a hormone that has extremely beneficial effects on both males and females for very different reasons. The common benefits that are shared between the two when the hCG diet is also incorporated is weight loss, muscle growth, and body reconstruction. This is what hCG is commonly used for in relation to diet and weight loss. But for optimal health, hCG works to correct and optimize the very different reproductive systems of humans.

How does this help men? Well guys, as you know, the older you get, the more junk you eat, the more beer you chug, and the more television marathons you run causes your body to become deprived. What happens? Your hormones and biological processes slacken and can often become so reduced in number that they often become ineffective and inert. What exactly does this mean for you? Low testosterone. Lets give it to you straight. Heres how it can be a downer

All of these contribute to an impaired overall health and poor quality of life. There is an upside and something you can do to improve your testosterone health. Know that youre not the only one with your struggles. hCG has the power to help correct these deficiencies so that you can have the body and the life that you deserve.

Many men turn to hCG to top up their testosterone tank. Many often find their tank is nearing empty and they need a boost to help the little guys jump-start more production. It can be a kick in the ego, to realize that you may need some help in that department. But heres the chem work on how hCG works like a luteinizing hormone (LH) to ensure that you can get what youre looking for.

LH is made by the pituitary gland. You know, that little gland thats at the base of the brain thats also responsible for growth hormone production? LH is specifically responsible for signalling the testicles to produce testosterone. Whats interesting is that although hCG is produced in large amounts by females (males do produce very low levels during their lifetime), the chemical makeup of hCG is extremely similar to that of LH. So much so, that the body treats hCG to increase testosterone just as it does LH.

hCG is extremely effective for helping to boost testosterone levels because LH is usually only active during sleep. In the sleep-deprived world you live in, it gets difficult to get enough rest to properly support these biological processes that are necessary for your testosterone health. hCG also makes androgen receptors more responsive to allow for sexual dysfunctions to be corrected due to the increase in growth hormones released by the pituitary gland. This means that while your testosterone levels are increasing, androgen activity is increased to improve penile growth, positive sperm count, and testicular growth. hCG can be injected and administered to stimulate the right dose of healthy testosterone production without a change in sleep behavior or interfering with the activities of your day.

The benefits of hCG for men include boosting healthy levels of testosterone thats needed for every biological process to ensure optimal health even in women. Just a few of these processes include maintaining weight, muscle mass, bone density, heart health, and sexual development. Although men need significantly higher levels to not only produce masculine features and deep voices, but also to support the goings-on of things we cant see happening that occur deep, down inside. Correcting low testosterone levels by using hCG for men can bring on a flood of positive benefits including:

Using hCG for testosterone therapy can enable you to reap the benefits that allow you to feel like a man again. If its increased energy you need to pound away at the gym, more muscle to burn the fat off, improved overall health to stick around for the family, or even better bedroom performance, with hCG injections the benefits are ripe for the reaping.

hCG and Testosteone seem like an unlikely pairing but because hCG works to synthesize testosterone and maximize its effects on the body, its even more effective and efficient for men to use. The hCG diet is no exception. The diet consists of a calorie-restricted meal plan for a period of several weeks while incorporating hCG shots to achieve the desired benefits. Typically the diet either restricts you at consuming either 500 or 800 calories a day of specific foods. These approved fruits, vegetables, and proteins help maximize the effects of hCG on the body as the metabolism is fired into gear to burn fat, increase energy levels, and trigger hormones to increase muscle growth and re-construct the physique.

Read more about the hCG Diet here.

Many people falsely believe that the calorie-restricted diet is too low for males and hCG is only safe for women. In reality, while the body is undergoing a change to correct the diet and lifestyle by adhering to the hCG diet protocol, weight loss, increased energy, and muscle mass is all triggered by correct and proper testosterone production. In both males and females, the body is supported by the nutritious diet consumed outlined by the diet protocol. The body maximizes all the nutrients supplied without burning out or becoming extremely fatigued. Males also naturally produce hCG, although levels should be too low to detect. But its needed to ensure proper male development including producing and boosting healthy levels of testosterone. Since men have more need of effective and healthy testosterone levels than women, participating in the hCG diet and injections generates extremely productive and appropriate results in males.

Although hCG is both safe and effective for females and males to use, there are possible side effects that you should be aware of. These include:

More serious side effects are rare and are normally associated with incorrect use of hCG but can include:

It is crucial to discuss treatment with your doctor to determine if the benefits of using hCG therapy outweigh the possible side effects you may experience and to ensure correct dosing and application of the hCG.

hCG is conveniently available to its consumers in prescription grade injections or the drops. Typically when it comes to weight loss and body sculpting, individual goals and and body physique is analyzed to determine the best option for you. However, when it comes to men seeking the benefits of improved testosterone levels, increased energy, and overall better health, prescription grade hCG injections provide maximum positive results.

The potent and convenient fast-acting dose can be administered straight into the bloodstream to provide an instant boost of support for the body. Prescription grade hCG ensures that youre getting high quality, pure, and legal therapy to get yourself back on track.

Weight loss benefits are enhanced when the injections are incorporated along with the hCG diet for men. The clean, calorie-restricted diet supports the bodys nutritional needs while sensitizing it to be more receptive to hormonal processes taking place, helping you lose some extra pounds and gain some lean muscle.

Find out how to enroll in the hCG Diet Program for men.

The benefits of taking hCG injections can help you feel like a man again. Look forward to the days of flying through your errands, intensifying your workouts, and burning up your libido stores in all the right ways. When your hormonal levels are healthy and happy, youre healthy and happy.

Making sure that you have healthy testosterone levels to ensure all is working well below the belt can dramatically change your life for the better. Let hCG help you get your confidence back and enjoy the benefits of living life and all it has to offer.

Always consult a doctor before commencing any new treatment.

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HCG And Testosterone: Benefits of hCG for Men

How to Do the South Beach Diet –

Mar, 3rd 2018 7:41 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

The South Beach Diet is one of the most popular diet plans of all time. This article will help you learn how to do the South Beach Diet during each phase and for long term wellness and weight maintenance.

The South Beach Diet is found in a book by Arthur Agatston, MD, called The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss.

There have been several variations and changes made to the program, but the core of the eating plan has stayed the same.

The diet is based in part on the glycemic Index, which ranks foods according to their glycemic load. As you learn how to do the South Beach Diet, you learn how to choose low GI foods that keep you full and satisfied so you eat less and slim down.

This diet focuses on a healthy balance between carbs and fatsgood carbs and fats. Highly processed foods like baked goods, sweets, and soft drinks will be off-limits. So if you are used to filling up on these foods, the diet may be hard to adjust to.

But Dr. Agatston says decreasing the bad carbs will help you metabolize what you eat more effectively and will also improve insulin resistance, leading to weight loss. Over time, your body learns to crave healthier foods.

The South Beach Diet is divided into three different phases.

All three phases include specific allowable foods, meal plans, and recipes.

South Beach Diet Phase 1

The most difficult part of the program is Phase 1 that lasts for two weeks and is the strictest of the three. It is when you will limit the most carbs from your daily diet, including fruit, bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, sugar, alcohol, and baked goods.

The theory behindPhase 1is that there is a switch inside us that affects the way our bodies react to the food we eat and makes us gain weight.

When the switch is on, we crave foods that actuallycause us to store fat.According to Dr. Agatston, at the end of the first two weeks the switch has gone from the on to off position.

The principle requiring the stringentPhase 1is that by following the specified plan, you can correct the way your body reacts to food. By the time begin to add some of the forbidden foods back into your diet, your body has had a chance to adjust.

Once you get used to cutting”bad carbs” this difficult phase becomes easier. Dr. Agatston says you will become accustomed to eating thegood carbsand fats and leaving the bad ones behind.

Many SBD fans swear that their cravings for sweets and other bad carbs virtually disappear during Phase 1.For some, thePhase 1period can be extended beyond two weeks, but it is not meant to be a permanent way of eating.

South Beach Diet Phase 2During this phase you can start adding foods from thePhase 2 Allowed Foods List. It’s up to you which ones you eat:bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, cereal, or fruit.

This diet gives you the freedom topick which of these foods you add back into your diet. While you can’t eat them all they’ll no longer be off-limits.

The key here is tore-introduce these foods in moderationand to not eat them as often as you were before.

South Beach Diet Phase 3Phase 3 is the final andleast restrictivePhase of The South Beach Diet. Dr. Agatston saysas long as you continue follow some basic guidelines, the diet has become your way of life and you’ll continue to maintain your weight.

It’s not smart to start the South Beach Diet unless you plan to stay on the program for life.

This is no a quick fix for weight loss, but rather a lifestyle for healthy eating and exercise. If you choose this plan, invest in the South Beach diet books and spend time reading and learning about the program. The more you know, the more likely it is you will stick to the plan.

Read more:
How to Do the South Beach Diet –

How Vegan Diet Keeps Me Energized, Mentally Sharp and Full …

Mar, 2nd 2018 3:44 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

But, where do you get your protein from?. This is a question every vegan person hears nearly on a daily basis. And trust me, I had more than a couple of these discussions.

Somehow people believe that meat is a nutrient-rich super package. I might say something that shocks you now: It isnt.

But let me explain: I feel energized, mentally sharp and full of drive living on a plant-based diet. I routinely work 60+ hour work weeks in a leadership position and manage to train nearly every day. In this article I want to share my secrets with you.

Six years ago I couldve never predicted that I would ever write an article about veganism. I lived an unhealthy life. I smoked, I was totally physically inactive and I literally couldnt have cared less about nutrition. I was a different being. Only in the recent past a full mind shift happened. After reading a book called Eating Animals from Jonathan Safran Foer. It opened my eyes and it helped me start my journey to a healthier, better life.

Thou shouldst eat to live; not live to eat. Socrates

For a vegan diet to work, you need to develop a different perspective. The plant-based nutrition diet is full of vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, beans, plant-derived milks while containing no animal products along the way. I couldve started with focusing on what the vegan diet doesnt contain, but Id rather focus on what it does contain. Its about perspective.

All these food options leaves you with a great pool of abundance on meal selection. Which leaves me to the key point: The one thing that you truly need for a vegan diet, is a mindset shift. Nutrition can be a stepping stone to get the most out of your life and fulfill your true potential, or it can be an annoying road block.

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If beef is your idea of real food for real people, youd better live real close to a real good hospital. Neal Barnard

If youre reading this, chances are high that your heart disease is already in the making. Heart disease is the current leading cause of death in the United States. The cardiovascular disease is formed by a plaque-build up in your arteries mainly from cholesterol and can be traced back well into your teen-years. A heart attack leads to a temporary oxygen and nutrient loss of the affected tissue, which leads to cell death. The same mechanism can happen in your brain, just with different terminology. Its called a stroke.

A vegan diet can increase the blood flow to key-areas of your body (e.g. brain, heart, muscles, digestive system, reproductive system). This can lead to more energy and a better well-being.

Eating animals is not energy efficient. Think about it. Youre using food (plants mostly soy beans) to create food (animals. E.g. chicken, pork). Although the life expectancy of farm animals are drastically reduced due to modern farming practices, eating animals still uses a great amount of resources. For example a piece of beef in a hamburger needed over 3,000 litres of water.

As a vegan you only produce half of the CO2 compared to meat eaters. You also only use one eleventh of fossil fuels, one thirteenth of water and one eighteenth of land compared to meat eaters. (I recommend watching the documentary Cowspiracy .) You are being a productive well-being who consumes little from the world yet lives a powerful life.

I try not to get too philosophical with this one. Humans have climbed the food chain in the last millions of years of your existence. The reason is not yet known. Maybe it was our larger brains with the dominant prefrontal cortex? The discovery of the advantageous effect of fire and cooking which made the consumption of food more effective? I cannot tell you.

The fact is: humans are in a position of power over countless of other species. Species, which are capable, according to numerous studies, to experience pain and suffering (the reason farmers install electric fences on their pasture areas). Its better to use our power, gained through pure luck in the evolution, to benefit the lives of the sentient beings around us.

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If you need to use supplements to make a diet work, it is not natural. Mike, 26 years old. Driving in a natural Toyota, on his way to his natural, climate-controlled office, working 9-5 on a natural, blue-light emitting computer device.

Ask yourself this question and ask it critically. The why of your actions is very important.

Do you want to go along this plant-based journey because of one of the reasons I wrote down in this article? Or is it because you simply want to feel special and impress your friends? If it is the latter I might tell you something that may shock you: Dont become a vegan.

Becoming a vegan should not be something that you do to enhance your ego, because it isnt sustainable.

Yes, in general vegans live healthier than non-vegans. Protein is not an issue, if your diet has enough calories you will have enough protein in your diet. But nonetheless you have to avoid certain killers in your diet. These are:

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I remember laughing at a friend who was buying organic fruits and vegetables for breakfast. Why do you consume such expensive products?, I asked him while joyously eating my $2 donut. This was 5 years ago. Nowadays I see food as something that fuels my body, something that I do to treat myself. The change was worth it. Dont be penny wise and pound foolish. Invest in your well-being. Shop in the produce aisle more than you do in the snack section. Eat foods containing the organic-label, theyre lower on pesticides. Your body is worth it, trust me.

Supplements Supplements should be a tool to enhance your well-being. Im not advising you to fill cupboards in your kitchen with pills only. Im advising you to pick the ones that are capable of enhancing your performance. The ones Im talking about are:

If youre looking for some tasty vegan recipes, read my other article:The Fitness Coachs Choice: 10+ Tasty and Easy-to-Make Vegan Recipes

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Weve all tried it: fully change my whole life in a single day.

When I was younger I tried to start exercising, start eating healthy, start sleeping right everything in a matter of hours. It worked great for the first week until I fell prey to my old, unhealthy habits again. You might have experienced this before too. You might have just read this post and you may be motivated to make a drastic change in your life. Thats cool, but nonetheless I recommend you to start small.

Every coach knows that the key to long-term habit change is consistency and sustainability. If youre currently eating meat two times per week, start with reducing meat to one time per week. Small changes will lead to big changes in the long run.

Another key to habit change is starting immediately. Dont wait for tomorrow. Are you heading out to dinner tonight? Maybe try something new and choose the vegetarian option. Theres nothing to lose and everything to gain. Always remember that your decisions have the impact of helping the animals, the planet and yourself.

Read more about how I changed from a meat eater to a vegetarian:How to Go Vegan: From Meat Eating to Vegetarian

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How Vegan Diet Keeps Me Energized, Mentally Sharp and Full …

Exactly How to Cut Calories to Lose Weight | Shape Magazine

Mar, 2nd 2018 3:43 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

Photo: Getty Images/Chris Ryan

To lose weight, you need to cut calories. Sounds easy, but there’s more to this age-old weight-loss wisdom than meets the eye. After all, if you’re not smart about how you cut calories, you’ll wind up starving (read: hangry) and unable to sustain your diet long enough to budge the scale. And if you’ve added exercise to your weight-loss plan, you need to know how to eat just enough to fuel your workoutswithout going overboard in the process.

Of course, you can always use exercise as your main weight-loss strategy, but it’s typically easier to simply consume less energy than try to burn it off. “The idea that diet is a more important element for weight loss isn’t necessarily because the calories from your diet are more significant, it’s just that it’s easier to target,” says Rachele Pojednic, Ph.D., assistant professor of nutrition at Simmons College and former research fellow at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine at Harvard Medical School.

Let’s put it this way: You can run for a solid hour to create a 600-calorie deficit, or you can just cut that jumbo muffin from your diet in the first place. Either approach can lead to weight loss; it’s just a matter of which is easier to manage both physically and mentally. “At the end of the day, [weight loss] is a math equation,” Pojednic says. (Related: 7 Weird Things That Can Lead to Weight Gain)

To cut through the confusion, we tapped three experts to show you exactly how to slash calories for weight-loss success.

When cutting calories, you’ll be far more successful if you count ’em as you go. But while calorie counting often gets a bad rap, it’s key to weight loss for a few reasons.

For starters, counting calories keeps you accountable. “If you need to write down and acknowledge the 400-calorie cupcake you have with your afternoon chai latte, you’re more likely to make a healthier choice,” says Pojednic.

In addition, chances are you underestimate just how many cals are in your go-to breakfast burrito, post-workout smoothie, or afternoon cookie (don’t worry, we all do it). Logging your food will give you a better handle on exactly how many calories you’re consuming, which is critical if your goal is weight loss, says Kristen F. Gradney, R.D.N., director of nutrition and metabolic services at Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center and spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

When using food tracking apps, manually enter your food items when possible to ensure accuracy, Gradney says. Many apps even allow you to scan barcodes making tracking easier than ever. Pojednic recommends MyFitnessPal and the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) SuperTracker.

But before you start slashing calories left and right, you need to figure out how many calories you need per day just to maintain your weight. You can do this by figuring out your basal metabolic rate (BMR), or the number of calories your body burns at rest. Your BMR is determined by a host of different variables, including sex, age, height, muscle mass, genetics and even the weight of your organs. And according to a review in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, your BMR is responsible for a whopping 60 to 75 percent of your total daily caloric expenditure, while physical activity and digestion account for the remainder.

The best way to get an accurate BMR number is to visit a doctor, nutritionist, or fitness facility for an indirect calorimetry test to measure your oxygen consumption. But FYI, these tests can cost $100-plus, according to Marie Spano, C.S.S.D., C.S.C.S., sports nutritionist for the NBA’s Atlanta Hawks. For a woman on a budget, your quickest, easiest option is to plug your height, weight, and current activity level into this interactive calculator from the USDA.

Once you have your daily caloric estimate, Spano recommends subtracting no more than 500 calories to get your new daily total. Just keep in mind, this total is a starting point. Feel free to adjust if you find you need feweror morecalories than you’re currently allotted. If you slash calories too low, you may lose weight initially, but you’ll risk some unpleasant side effects: headaches, moodiness, and low energy, Pojednic says. Not to mention, calories are what fuel your workouts and recovery. So, if you find you’re struggling with your current calorie allotment, don’t be afraid to tinker with it until you find a sustainable total. Otherwise, you’ll sabotage your weight loss later on. “Typically you end up overcorrecting after you’ve lost the weight and put it all back on. Or more,” Pojednic says.

Just keep in mind that once you start dropping pounds, your daily calorie needs will also drop, Spano says. This is because simply put, smallerthings require less energy to power them. Think of it this way: Your smartphone likely uses less juice than your laptop or tablet. So, if you’re using the USDA calculator or another online tool, recalculate your daily caloric needs once you lose 10 pounds. This way, you don’t eat more calories than you need. If you coughed up cash for an in-office test, wait until you’ve lost 20 pounds or more to get re-tested, and use an online calculator to tide you over until then. (Related:6 Tricks for Preventing Weight Gain and Staying at Your “Happy” Weight)

Once you’re ready to cut calories, start by slimming your bevvies, Gradney says. To avoid feeling deprived, pick calorie- and sugar-free versions of your favorites. From there, cut high-cal condiments like mayonnaise, and top your salads with vinegar-based dressings instead of creamy ones. You can also reduce calories by subbing in fiber-rich fruits and veggies for your midafternoon snack, which offer the added benefit of keeping you fuller longer. Your best options include apples, bananas, raspberries, dark greens like spinach, carrots, and beets.

Spano also recommends cutting fat before carbs, especially if you’re a runner or HIIT-lover. “You need a certain amount of carbohydrate for high-intensity exercise,” she says, but adds that you can cut back on carbs if you have a light workout planned or the day off. You’ll want to stick with general dietary recommendations, which suggest approximately 130 grams of carbohydrates per day. Limit saturated fat to less than 10 percent of your daily calories.

And (no surprise here), while you’re cutting, make sure the calories you are getting aren’t coming from junk foods. Swap out high-fat, high-sugar foods like muffins, chips, and processed meats for nutritionally dense options like leafy greens, whole grain breads, and lean protein. This will give you the most nutritional bang for your buck, helping you fill up while you slim down. (Related: This 30-Day Clean-ish Eating Challenge Will Reset Your Diet for the New Year)

Okay, so you’ve calculated your daily caloric needs and dutifully tracked your food intake to stay within a 500-calorie deficit. What if, after weeksor even monthsof effort, the scale hasn’t budged? (Ugh!) According to Pojednic, if you’re sticking to a 500-calorie per day deficit, you should be on track to lose about 2 pounds per week. So if you haven’t seen any progress after 30 days, it may be time to enlist the help of a physician or registered dietitian, Pojednic says.

According to Spano, it’s not uncommon for people to calculate their calorie needs incorrectly, overestimate how many calories they’re burning through exercise, or underestimate how many calories they’re eating. A physician or registered dietitian can help pinpoint your problem, and advise new strategies to get you on track (thinkincreasing exercise or meal frequency, or re-evaluating your calorie-counting method).

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Exactly How to Cut Calories to Lose Weight | Shape Magazine

9 Simple Ways To Lose Weight Quickly For Teenagers

Mar, 2nd 2018 3:43 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

Teenage or adolescence is a crucial phase of our life. It is at this age that several hormonal changes take place within our body. It is also the growth phase and hence, special attention is required for the overall fitness of the body and mind. Unfortunately, lack of physical activity and consuming excessive junk food has pushed numerous teenagers into the obesity whirlpool. Being overweight affects their self-confidence and they often take to skipping meals or following fad diets to the point of starvation to attain their desired weight. But the results are usually not as good as expected and many teenagers end up with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia, which deprives their bodies of vital nutrients.

Image: Shutterstock

Skipping meals is actually counter-productive when it comes to losing weight. In fact, you should eat frequent small portions every 3 to 4 hours in a day. You should try and consume at least five meals a day. Eating several small portions will also keep your blood sugar level steady. Most people have this misconception that skipping breakfast is a great way to cut calories. But the fact is, when you skip breakfast, you experience hunger pangs and end up binging during lunch. Certain studies have also observed that people who eat breakfast tend to have lower BMIs.

Drinking fluids does not mean you have to gorge on aerated drinks, sodas and processed juices as they load your body with calories. Water is the best liquid that not only hydrates your body but also removes toxins from your system. It is advisable to drink at least 3 liters of water in a day. Other fluids you can consume include unsweetened fruits juices diluted with water and low fat milk. Green tea is also a great option to lose weight. Fruit and vegetable juices are devoid of fiber, so eating whole fruits and vegetables is a better option.

Teenagers are often habituated to chewing gum. It does help in burning calories but is not good for your stomach. Chewing causes you to swallow more puff-producing air instead of food. You can try sucking a mint instead of chewing gum. Besides keeping hunger at bay, a mint will also give you fresh breath.

Late night snacking is certainly not conducive to weight loss. So it is advisable to finish your dinner by 8 p.m. You can indulge in a cup of tea or frozen yoghurt if you need something sweet after dinner. But late night munching should be avoided as much as possible as whatever you eat gets stored in the body as fat. Brush your teeth after dinner to ensure that you do not indulge in snacking between 9 p.m. to 6 a.m.

Most of us love to snack on chips, French fries, cakes, sausages, biscuits, pies and candies. However delicious they may be, they are high in unhealthy saturated fats and sugars that can lead to weight gain. These food items also lead to high cholesterol. To become fit, these should be replaced with healthier options like fruits and vegetables. Now these might not look like an attractive alternative but these can be made interesting. You can have them with peanut butter or hummus. You can also munch on a handful of unsalted nuts or popcorn without added salt or butter. Greek yoghurt also helps boost your metabolism and can be eaten topped with honey and berries.

Fad diets are a big no; especially if you wish to lose weight on a long term basis. Numerous fad diets promise quick weight loss and they do yield results. But these results are short lived and are often accompanied by nutritional deficiencies and health risks. As a teenager, you require adequate supply of all vital nutrients to fulfill your bodys growth requirements. Fad diets are nutritionally unbalanced and so the weight lost in the course of diet is likely to be regained after the diet is over. So it is important to choose your diet plan carefully to incorporate a healthy balanced diet with more physical activity.

Several low carb diets are gaining prominence these days. But they can prove to be unhealthy as they often eliminate whole food groups, thus depriving you of the nutrients from those food groups. These diets are often high in saturated unhealthy fats that can cause high cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease. Some other diets eliminate dairy foods like milk, yoghurt and cheese. These food items are a good source of calcium which is vital for healthy bones and their proper growth. So think hard before you decide to get on a diet.

To be able to lose weight successfully, you need to make exercising a part of your daily routine. Physical activity is important for the fitness of both body and mind. You can lift weights, swim or run on a treadmill. You can perform simple exercises like squats, dips and crunches at home. Even dancing is a great exercise that works on all your body muscles. Ensure to exercise at least 3 to 4 days in a week rather than being a couch potato.

Walking is also a great way to burn calories. An average person can burn 6 calories by walking for a minute. Begin by walking one mile a day and remember to walk at a brisk pace. Slow down if you find yourself out of breath and increase the distance to be covered gradually. Use the stairs instead of lift. According to certain studies, walking for 15 minutes in a day can increase your life expectancy by 3 years. This is one of the easy ways to lose weight for teenagers!

As stated earlier, you need not starve yourself to lose weight. All you need to do is follow a balanced diet incorporating the following food items:

Foods that are high in fiber can keep you full for longer, thus keeping hunger at bay and minimizing calorie consumption. Sources of fiber include whole breads, whole grain cereals and fruits and vegetables.

Calcium is vital for proper bone development and bone density. Teenagers require the greatest amounts of calcium of approximately 1200 mg a day. So it is advisable to replace your soft drinks with milk. Since milk contains fortified vitamin D, it also helps in strengthening the bones. Other sources of calcium include yoghurt, hard cheese and low fat cottage cheese.

Iron is an important mineral as it facilitates the delivery of oxygen to the tissues and develops the brain and immune function. Iron also provides the body adequate energy to function. The daily requirement of iron is 12 mg and 15 mg for teenage boys and girls respectively. Sources of iron include beef, pork, poultry, eggs and oysters. Vegetarian sources include spinach, asparagus, green peas, beans and nuts as well as fortified cereals, pasta and rice.

Fruits and vegetables are an excellent source of vitamins and minerals needed by a growing teen body. So it is advisable to consume five servings of fruits and vegetables every day. These can be easily taken in the form of baked or steamed veggies, fruit juices and smoothies. You can also try fresh, frozen or dried fruits as optional snacks.

As stated earlier, water is the best fluid; so ensure to drink the recommended 6 to 8 glasses of water in a day so that you dont feel dehydrated. You can include other fluids like unsweetened fruit juices and milk.

Hope this post on how to lose weight fast at home for teenagers helps you!

It is very easy to fall into the trap of self hate when you lack self confidence, when the world uses cruel terms to address you, when all you want to do is lose a few kilos and when you are just a teenager without the life experience to know better. But you are worth so much! Dont spoil your health with bad eating habits. Follow these steps and you will see a different you soon.

9 Simple Ways To Lose Weight Quickly For Teenagers

South Beach Diet Investigated –

Mar, 1st 2018 1:43 am, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

“The South Beach Diet is not low carb, nor is it low fat” Dr. Agatston

The South Beach Diet plan was created by cardiologist Dr. Arthur Agatston based at Mount Sinai Hospital in South Florida. The diet was originally developed for overweight heart patients. The patients experienced better health and weight loss. The South Beach Diet has come to be one of the most popular diets of all time.

Agatstons book The South Beach Diet: The Delicious, Doctor-Designed, Foolproof Plan for Fast and Healthy Weight Loss quickly became a best-seller (despite a seemingly pretentious subtitle). The diet i includes foods such as whole grains, healthy fats, fish, chicken, fruits and vegetables. It was constructed in such a way as to be sustainable for most.

The original book lead to a number of updates, as new research allowed.

The Supercharged version allows more foods than the original South Beach formula. Agatston says that he updated the diet to allow for greater flexibility based on feedback from his patients and on his website.

The new Supercharged plan also includes 20 minutes of a specific type of exercise called interval training that Agatston claims will speed up metabolism, increase the rate of weight loss and improve general health.

He states that interval training allows dieters to achieve maximum results with a minimum time commitment. In this he is correct research continues to show benefits from this kind of training.

The South Beach Diet begins with a somewhat restrictive two-week induction phase which will result in weight loss in most people. In this phase most carbohydrates (such as rice, pasta, and breads) must be avoided.

There are three meals a day and snacks eating until your hunger is satisfied. Meats, shellfish, chicken, turkey, and fish are all on the menu along with nuts, cheese (fat-free), eggs, salads, and vegetables.

See the South Beach Diet Food List for more.

This second phase includes specific meal plans and recipes. It reintroduces some of the foods avoided in Phase 1 but only sparingly. In this phase weight loss should be in the region of 1-2 pounds per week. This length of time on this phase is indefinite (i.e. until a specific goal is reached).

The third phase is about living the lifestyle more than a phase its about eating healthy foods, and maintaining weight.

Although the South Beach Diet may seem similar to the Atkins diet or the Zone diet, Dr. Agatston stresses it is not a strictly low-carb diet. Its all about balancing the good carbs against the “bad” carbs. Note that the first 14-day phase is definitely a low-carb phase. However the South Beach Diet is based around the Glycemic Index, and carbs are chosen according to this index.

It is quite feasible to follow the principles in the diet from Phase 2 only (i.e. forgoing Phase 1) they make good sense. The scientific backing for an induction phase is unclear.

About half of the original book was made up of recipes.. Or you may want to join the online program at this has over 800 recipes (that cannot be found in the book) and meal plans more than 1 million people have subscribed to this program.

Arthur Agatston has also written:

SnackPart-skim mozzarella cheese stick

LunchChicken Caesar salad (no croutons)Prepared Caesar dressing, 2 Tbsp

SnackLow-fat cottage cheese ( cup) with cup chopped tomatoes and cucumbers

Dinner Mahi mahi Oven-Roasted Vegetables Arugula saladLow-sugar prepared dressing

Dessert Lemon Peel Ricotta Crme

Lunch Lemon Couscous Chicken Tomato and cucumber slices Snack Dannon Light n Fit yogurt, 4 oz.

Dinner Meat Loaf Steamed asparagus Mushrooms sauted in olive oilSliced Bermuda onion and tomato with drizzled olive oil

DessertSliced cantaloupe with 2 Tbsp ricotta cheese

Lunch Roast Beef Wrap Nectarine

DinnerGrilled salmon with tomato salsaTossed salad (mixed greens, cucumbers, green bell peppers, cherry tomatoes)Olive oil and vinegar to taste or 2 Tbsp low-sugar prepared dressing

Dessert Chocolate-Dipped Apricots

Virtually none.

The only thing we could think of is the potential food cost.

If you look at the meal plan above you will see that some of the foods listed could get expensive. However it doesnt have to be that way. It is possible (not easy but possible) to source the healthy foods required (lean proteins, quality carbs, etc) while on a budget.

See the South Beach Diet Delivery Program

By Mizpah Matus B.Hlth.Sc(Hons)

Last Reviewed: January 22, 2018

Go here to see the original:
South Beach Diet Investigated –

Nutrition in weight management and obesity: | Neuro Nutrition

Feb, 27th 2018 10:45 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

What I have learned from my Nutrition in weight management course and its role on the epidemic, obesity!

Objective: To review the evidence on the diet and nutrition causes of obesity and torecommend strategies to reduce obesity prevalence.

Design: The evidence for potential aetiological factors and strategies to reduce obesity prevalence was reviewed, and recommendations for public health action, population nutrition goals and further research were made.

Results: Protective factors against obesity were considered to be: regular physicalactivity (convincing); a high intake of dietary non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)/fibre (convincing); supportive home and school environments for children (probable); and breastfeeding (probable). Risk factors for obesity were considered to be sedentary lifestyles (convincing); a high intake of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods (convincing); heavy marketing of energy-dense foods and fast food outlets (probable); sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit juices (probable); adverse social and economic conditionsdeveloped countries, especially in women (probable).

A broad range of strategies were recommended to reduce obesity prevalenceincluding: influencing the food supply to make healthy choices easier; reducing themarketing of energy dense foods and beverages to children; influencing urbanenvironments and transport systems to promote physical activity; developingcommunity-wide programmes in multiple settings; increased communications about healthy eating and physical activity; and improved health services to promote breastfeeding and manage currently overweight or obese people.Conclusions: The increasing prevalence of obesity is a major health threat in bothlow- and high income countries. Comprehensive programmes will be needed to turn the epidemic around.

Another difficulty in rating evidence in relation to some of the potentialenvironmental causes of weight gain. For environmentalfactors, more associated evidence and expert opinion hadto prevail because of the absence of direct studies or trialsin the area..It is important to note that this review on obesity hasnot covered the energy expenditure side of the energybalance equation in any depth. Physical activity is at leastas important as energy intake in the genesis of weightgain and obesity and there are likely to be manyinteractions between the two sides of the equation interms of aetiology and prevention. The role of physicalinactivity in the development of obesity has been welldescribed and a recent report from the US Center forDisease Control and Prevention summarises the evidencebase for a variety of interventions to increase physicalactivity at the population.

Also, a thorough reviewof weight control and physical activity has recently beenconducted by the WHO International Agency forResearch on Cancer and was also used as a basis forrecommendations on physical activity.

Current global situation and trendsOverview:

The prevalence of obesity is increasing throughout theworlds population. But the distribution varies greatlybetween and within countries. In the US, over the past 30years, the prevalence of obesity rose from about 1220%of the population from 1978 to 1998. The UK hasexperienced an increase in the prevalence of obesity from7% in 1980 to 16% in 1958. Other countries, such as TheNetherlands, have experienced much smaller increasesfrom a low baseline of about 5% in the 1980s to about 8%in 1997. In Asia, the prevalence of obesity has rapidlyincreased. In the last 8 years the proportion of Chinesemen with a body mass index (BMI) .25 kg/m2 has tripledfrom 4 to 15% of the population and the proportion inwomen has doubled from 10 to 20%. Pacific populationshave some of the worlds highest prevalence rates ofobesity. The proportion of men and women with a BMI.30 kg/m in Nauru was 77% in 1994 and for Pacificpeople living in New Zealand in the early 1990s theprevalence rates were about 6570%.The obesity epidemic moves through a population in areasonably consistent pattern over time and this isreflected in the different patterns in low- and high incomecountries. In low income countries, obesity is morecommon in people of higher socioeconomic status and inthose living in urban communities. It is often firstapparent among middle-aged women. In more affluentcountries, it is associated with lower socioeconomicstatus, especially in women, and rural communities.The sex differences are less marked in affluent countriesand obesity is often common amongst adolescents andyounger children.Brazil is an example of a country with well documentedchanges in obesity prevalence as it undergoesrapid nutrition transition. There has been a rapidincrease in obesity where the prevalence among urbanmen with high incomes is about 10%, but still only 1% inrural areas. Women in all regions are generally moreobese than men and the prevalence for those on lowincome is still increasing. However, the rate of obesityamong women with high income is becoming stable oreven declining.The standard definitions of overweight (BMI 25kg/m2) and obesity (30 kg/m2) have been mainlyderived from populations of European descent. However,in populations with large body frames, such as Polynesians,higher cut-off points have been used 16. Inpopulations with smaller body frames, such as Chinesepopulations, lower cut-off points have been proposedand studies are being undertaken to evaluate appropriatecut-off points for a variety of Asian populations.Body fat distribution (often assessed by the waistcircumference or the waist:hip ratio) is an importantindependent predictor of morbidity. Although thisreview focuses on weight gain and the development ofoverweight and obesity, it is acknowledged that increasesin abdominal fatness (particularly, intra-abdominal fat)pose a greater risk to health than increases in fatnessaround the hips and limbs. In general, the causes of weightgain and abdominal weight gain are the same and it is thecharacteristics of the individuals (such as sex, age,menopausal status) that influence the distribution of thefat that is gained.

The nutrition transition

The increasing westernisation, urbanisation and mechanisationoccurring in most countries around the world isassociated with changes in the diet towards one of high fat,high energy-dense foods and a sedentary lifestyle. Thisshift is also associated with the current rapid changes inchildhood and adult obesity. Even in many low incomecountries, obesity is now rapidly increasing, and oftencoexists in the same population with chronic undernutrition.Life expectancy has increased due toadvancement in nutrition, hygiene and the control ofinfectious disease. Infectious diseases and nutrientdeficiency diseases are, therefore, being replaced indeveloping countries by new threats to the health ofpopulations like obesity, cardiovascular disease anddiabetes..A sharp decline in cost of vegetable oils and sugarmeans that they are now in direct competition with cerealsas the cheapest food ingredients in the world. This hascaused a reduction in the proportion of the diet that isderived from grain and grain products and has greatlyincreased world average energy consumption, althoughthis increase is not distributed evenly throughout theworlds population. As populations become more urban and incomes rise,diets high in sugar, fat and animal products replace moretraditional diets that were high in complex carbohydratesand fibre. Ethnic cuisine and unique traditional foodhabits are being replaced by westernised fast foods, softdrinks and increased meat consumption. Homogenisationand westernisation of the global diet has increasedthe energy density and this is particularly a problem forthe poor in all countries who are at risk of both obesity andmicronutrient deficiencies.

Health consequences of obesity

Mortality rates increase with BMI and they are greatlyincreased above a BMI of 30.As obesity has increased over the last 30 years, theprevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically.The global numbers of people with diabetes (mainly type2) are predicted to rise by almost 50% in 10 years151million in 2000 to 221 million in 2025. The most potentpredictor for the risk of diabetes, apart from age, is theBMI23. Even at a BMI of 25 kg/m2 the risk of type 2 diabetesis significantly higher compared to BMI of less than22 kg/m2 but at BMI over 30 kg/m2 the relative risks areenormous. Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasinglyprevalent among children as obesity increases in those agegroups. A high BMI is associated with higher blood pressure andrisk of hypertension, higher total cholesterol, LDLcholesteroland triglyceride levels and lower HDLcholesterollevels. The overall risk of coronary heartdisease and stroke, therefore, increases substantially withweight gain and obesity.Gall bladder disease and the incidence of clinicallysymptomatic gallstones are positively related to BMI23.There is evidence to suggest increased cancer risk as BMIincreases, such as colorectal cancer in men, cancer of theendometrium and biliary passage in women, and breastcancer in post-menopausal women. Obese people arealso at increased risk of gout, sleep apnoea, obstetric andsurgical complications.

Host issuesThere are a variety of behaviours and other host factorsthat have a potential effect on a populations level ofobesity. These are, of course, closely linked to the vectorsand the environments and in many cases the issues mergeand overlap. Issues related to social aspects of eating arenot covered.

Snacking/eating frequency:

While there is no one definition of snacking, it is probablybest to consider the content of snack foods and theincreased eating frequency that snacking promotes asseparate issues. There is evidence thatsnacking prevalence (i.e. occasions of snacking) isincreasing, the energy density of snack foods is increasingand the contribution to total energy is increasing. Snackscontribute to about 2025% of total energy intake incountries like the US and UK. However, there is littleevidence that a higher frequency of eating per se is apotential cause of obesity. Cross-sectional studies tend toshow a negative relationship or no relationship betweenmeal frequency and BMI37. Low eating frequency may, ofcourse, be a response to obesity rather than a cause.Experimental studies have found mixed results on thedegree of caloric compensation that people make at mealtime in response to a prior snack with some studiesDiet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity showing more complete compensation among leanpeople. There is insufficient evidence to support aneffect of a higher frequency of eating on obesity or weightgain. If anything, it is protective against weight gain. Thehigh energy density of common snack foods, however,may do the opposite and promote weight gain (see below).Restrained eating, dieting and binge eating patterns.While a degree of selective or restrained eating is probablyneeded to prevent obesity in an environment of plenty,some individuals (dieters and non-dieters) score highly onthe Restraint Scale and paradoxically may also exhibitperiods of disinhibited eating. Such individuals appearto be at risk of dietingovereating cycles. The conceptsused to define these constructs and the instruments usedto measure them continue to evolve, but the studies wouldsuggest that a flexible restraint eating pattern is associatedwith a lower risk of weight gain whereas a rigidrestraint/periodic disinhibition pattern is associated witha greater risk of weight gain. Binge eating disorder andnight eating syndrome would be examples of the latterpattern. Binge eating disorders are significantly morecommon in obesity in cross-sectional studies. Therelationships between these dietary patterns and weightgain or obesity is complex with both cause and effectrelationships likely.

Eating out:

In western countries, the frequency of eating foodprepared outside the home is increasing and this is mostapparent and best documented in the US. In 1970, 26% ofthe food dollar in the US was spent on food preparedoutside the home. By 1995, it had climbed to 39% and isprojected to rise to 53% by 2042,43. This shift towards anincrease in the frequency of eating meals and snacks awayfrom home and the proportion of food budget spent onaway from home foods 42,44,45 has coincided with theincreasing prevalence of obesity.

In the US, food prepared away from home is higher intotal energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol andsodium, but contains less fibre and calcium and is overallof poorer nutritional quality than at-home food. Also, thefat content of at-home food has fallen considerably from41% of total energy in 1977 to 31.5%, but there has been nochange in the fat content of food prepared away fromhome (37.6%)43.

These food composition differences and the increasingportion sizes, are likely contributors to the risingprevalence of obesity in the US. Those who eat outmore, on average, have a higher BMI than those who eatmore at home. The evidence implicating the increasinguse of food prepared outside the home as a risk for obesityis largely limited to the US but this may be extrapolated toother western countries. It is unknown whether a highfrequency of eating out is associated with obesity orweight gain in other populations, for example, in Asiancountries, where eating outside the home may not be arisk for weight gain.

Early nutritionBirth weight is a crude indicator of intrauterine nutrition. Asystematic review of predictors of obesity by Parsons et al.found that studies reported a consistent and positiverelationship between birth weight and BMI (or risk ofoverweight) as a child or as an adult. It is possible thatlow birth weights may also be associated with high adultBMI (i.e. that the relationship is a J-shaped curve ratherthan linear and positive). However, very low birth weightis a much weaker predictor of high adult BMI than highbirth weight.Maternal and childhood undernutrition are common inlow income countries and childhood stunting is often usedas a marker for this. A later exposure to more western-stylediets and lifestyles (such as through migration to urbanareas and/or improved economic conditions) maypromote an excessive increase in body fatness orabdominal fatness. Popkin et al. studied 39-year-oldchildren in cross-sectional studies in four countries (China,Russia, South Africa and Brazil) and found that stuntedchildren (low height-for-age z-score) were more likelythan non-stunted children to be overweight (high weight for-heightz-score) with relative risks. On the other hand, a cohort of children measured atage 3 in Guatemala and followed into adulthood showedthat childhood stunting was associated with a low BMI andlow percent body fat in men but no such relationshipswere seen in women. Only when BMI or percent bodywere adjusted for, did an association between severestunting and high waist:hip ratio become evident.The hypothesis that intrauterine and/or early childhoodundernutrition leads to adult obesity or abdominal obesityis an important one that links with the other relationshipsbetween early undernutrition and adult diseases such ashypertension and diabetes. This could pose a majorproblem for countries undergoing the economic andnutrition transition. However, the relationships areclearly complex and the available data were judgedinsufficient to be able to make a single summary statementin the evidence table.

Vector issues

Percent fat, percent carbohydrate and energy densityBackground: Most of the debate about the fat andcarbohydrate content of the diet in relation to obesitycentres on the effects of altering the reciprocal proportionsof carbohydrate and fat in the diet on energy density, totalenergy intake, body weight and lipoprotein profiles. Thedebate 5860 has become vigorous and, at times, muddledbecause several issues are usually debated at the sametime. Also, the epidemiological evidence comes fromdifferent types of studies (ecological, cross-sectional andprospective) which suffer from multiple potential sourcesof bias, the instruments used to measure dietary intake areblunt, and there is substantial obesity-related underreportingof energy and fat intake.

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity in the diet and obesity or weight gain.

Ecological studies between populations tend to show apositive relationship between fat and obesity, especially ifpopulations with low fat intakes are included, butnegative relationships are also seen. Similarly, studies inthe same population over time tend to show positiverelationships between obesity and dietary fat intake inpopulations undergoing nutrition transition but a negativerelationship in many westernised populations. Crosssectionaland prospective studies also show mixedresults. In light of the methodological drawbacks ofthese types of studies and the mixed results they haveproduced controlled trials are needed to address thequestion.

Percent fat in the dietfixed total energy trials:According to Reaven the simplest way to answer thequestion about the impact of fat and carbohydrate in thediet on body weight is to focus on studies that vary inmacronutrient composition, but are equal in energy.Studies that have done this have indeed found thatclamping total energy produces similar weight changesirrespective of the macronutrient composition. Therationale for many of these studies was to assess theimpact of macronutrient changes independent of totalenergy intake. They were not to emulate the real worldwhere total intake is ad libitum. The conclusion from thefixed energy studies is that if a high percent fat dietpromotes weight gain, the mechanism appears to bemediated by promoting a higher total energy intake.Percent fat in the dietad libitum trials, covertmanipulations: Several trials have covertly manipulatedthe fat and carbohydrate proportions of equally palatablediets while allowing study participants to eat ad libitumtotal intakes. Most of the studies were short term withthe longest being 11 weeks. These trials consistentlyshow a progressive rise in total energy intake and bodyweight on the higher percent fat diets and the opposite onthe lower percent fat diets. The amount (weight) of foodeaten is similar on both types of diet. These covertmanipulation studies are central to the debate on dietaryfat and weight gain because they demonstrate that, otherthings being equal, the physiologicalbehavioural consequenceof a high percent fat diet is a slow weight gainthrough the passive overconsumption of total energy.Percent fat in the dietad libitum trials, overtmanipulation: Longer term trials of high and low percentfat diets have generally used educational strategies to getparticipants to select reduced fat food options andcompared them with standard or higher fat diets. Thediet is unrestricted in total amount (weight) andreplacement of lost energy from fat is not specificallyreplaced by carbohydrate. It is important to note that,unlike the covert manipulations, it is difficult to blindsuch studies and, therefore, psychosocial effects,personal preferences and other effects not directly relatedto physiology can confound the results.

An interesting study attempting to replicate realisticfood choices randomised normal weight and overweightparticipants into two groups who selected either full fat orreduced fat foods from small, realistic supermarkets inthe study centres. The free access to higher fat productsresulted in a significant increase in energy intake(0.9 MJ/d) and body weight (0.7 kg) over 6 monthscompared to the reduced fat group.Reducing the fat content of the diet consistentlyproduces modest reductions in body weight but onecould argue that instructions to individuals to reduce othermacronutrients in the diet or to restrict the intake of certainhigh volume foods (such as staple carbohydrates) wouldalso result in weight loss. Indeed, there are a myriad ofpopular diets with a wide variety of food and drinkrestrictions and all have their champions who have lostweight. It is obvious that any such restrictions that result ina reduction in total energy intake will produce weight loss.

The rationale for promoting a reduction in the fat contentof the diet to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss isthat it is concordant with the bodys physiologicalbehavioural mechanisms regulating food intake asevidenced by the covert manipulation studies.

Another potential criticism of promoting a reduced fatcontent of the diet is that the ad libitum weight loss studiesshow a modest effect (a few kilograms) with a tendency toreturn towards the previous weight after the interventionperiod. This rebound is common to all dietaryinterventions and there are a number of potentialexplanations for this. They include: a reduction incompliance to the diet, perhaps due to an environmentthat is unsupportive of healthy food choices; overeating offoods known to be low in fat and; physiologicaladaptations that attenuate the impact of negative energybalance on weight loss.

Extremely low fat, high carbohydrate diets are also veryeffective for weight loss but it must be stressed thatlarge reductions in total fat intake would be unattainable ata population level. Average changes in the order of 23 kgmay seem small for individuals but they are important on apopulation level in the context of obesity prevention. Ashift of one unit of BMI in the overall distribution in thepopulation is associated with a 5% point change in the

Many studies havemanipulated the macronutrient content of short term dietsunder isocaloric weight stable conditions (such as reducingsaturated fat and replacing the energy with carbohydrate orother types of fat). In many but not all such studies, thehigh carbohydrate diet is associated with increasedtriglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol (especially ifpredominantly simple carbohydrates are used).The weight loss effect of a reduced-fat diet, ad libitumdiet, however, appears to compensate for these potentiallydetrimental effects. Schaefer et al. directly compared theeffects of shifting subjects from a high fat diet (35% ofenergy) to a low fat diet (15% of energy) under isocaloric(56 weeks) and ad libitum (1012 weeks) conditions.In order to achieve energy equivalence in the isocaloricpart of the study, the weight and volume of the foodconsumed on the lower fat diet had to be increased by30%. Under weight-maintenance conditions, on the lowfat diet there was a significant reduction total, LDL- andHDL-cholesterol and an increase in total:HDL cholesterolratio and plasma triglyceride concentrations. At the end ofthe ad libitum diet, subjects had lost an average of 3.6 kgand achieved greater reductions in total and LDL cholesterolcompared to the low fat isocaloric diet. Thetotal:HDL cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels were nodifferent at the end of the ad libitum period compared tobaseline.

This and other studies that assess the interactionbetween macronutrient composition and weight changeon blood lipids77,99,100 suggest that the effects of shortterm, isocaloric manipulations under metabolic wardconditions on lipids cannot be extrapolated to long term,ad libitum conditions in free-living individuals.

Summary of percent fat and obesity: At a macronutrientlevel, there is no evidence that energy from fat is morefattening than the same amount of energy fromcarbohydrate or protein. At a dietary level, there is stilldebate about the effects of diet composition on unhealthyweight gain, and more research is needed in this area.

However, it was considered that the overall evidence fromthe randomised controlled trials was convincing that ahigh intake of energy-dense foods (which are often alsomicronutrient poor) promotes unhealthy weight gain. Theshort term, isocaloric substitution studies were consideredfar less relevant to free living individuals than the longerterm, ad libitum studies. These latter studies show a highlyconsistent effect of a high fat content on promoting weightgain. The covert manipulations of fat content show that theeffect is a physiologicalbehavioural one and is notdependent on conscious reductions in food eaten. Themain mechanism for this appears to be that a diet high infat has a weak impact on satiety because of its high energydensity and this leads to a passive overconsumption oftotal energy. The high palatability of high fat foods and therelatively weak metabolic autoregulation in the face of ahigh fat diet are also likely contributors. While most highfat diets tend to be energy dense diets and thus weight promotingdiets, important caveats were noted. Forexample, many processed low fat foods were quiteenergy-dense and could promote weight gain if eaten inlarge amounts and conversely vegetable-based foods werequite energy dilute even with significant added fat andcould protect against weight gain.

Carbohydrate type (sugar, glycemic index (GI) and nonstarchpolysaccharide (NSP).

The definitions of carbohydrates are often confusin and not just to me.

Sugars are predominantly monosaccharides and disaccharides.The term free sugars has been defined inrelation to the sugars that promote dental caries and refersto all mono and disaccharides added by the manufacturer,cook or consumer plus sugars naturally present in fruitjuice, honey and syrups. Polysaccharides are either starchor NSP, the latter having considerable commonality withthe term dietary fibre which is still in common parlanceand was the term used in many of the studies reviewed.Sugars, GI and NSP/fibre are considered in turn, althoughof course there is significant overlap between these factorswithin foods.

Sugar in foods: There is a reciprocal relationshipbetween the percent fat and percent carbohydrate in thediet because these two nutrients generally contribute over80% of total energy. Therefore, the previous section onpercent fat could also be stated as: diets with a highcarbohydrate content provide protection against weightgain. However, if the diet is high in sugar, does the sameassociation apply? Large population studies have demonstratedthat those who have high total energy intakes tendto have a high total sugar intake although in relativeterms, a reciprocal relationship is also seen between thepercent fat and percent sugar in the diet. Studies relatingsugar intake to BMI consistently show an inverse relationbetween sugar intake as a percent of energy and BMI orobesity prevalence.

It is possible that the negative relationship betweensucrose consumption and BMI is affected by confoundingfactors. For example, more active people need extraenergy and this could be provided by sugar. Selectiveunderreporting of high sugar foods and drinks byoverweight/obese people is another possible confounder.

The high sugar content of some products withreduced fat claims may falsely imply that the products arelow in energy as well.

Simple sugars have hedonistic value. Sweeteningincreases the palatability of many foods and it has beensuggested that sweetness may lead to overconsumption.

However, there appears to be a limit to thehedonistic response to sweetened foods. Palatability offoods is also increased by fat and therefore processedfoods containing both high sugar and fat content may leadto weight gain. Overall, the mixed results, especiallyamongst the few available trials, does not allow a judgement to be made about the sugar content of food and obesity.

Studies have compared high fat diets with low fat dietsthat are high in either sugar or starch. Raben et al. foundthat similar amounts of energy were consumed on thehigh fat and high sucrose diets but there was a lowerenergy intake and weight loss with the high starchdiets. Saris et al. found a relative weight loss of 1.7 kgin the high sugar diet and 2.6 kg in the high starch dietcompared to the high fat diet (both statisticallysignificant) but the differences between carbohydratetypes was not significant.

Sugar in drinks: The energy density of drinks such asregular soda drinks is low because of the high watercontent but physiologically the energy density of fluidsand foods may have not have comparable effects onsatiety and food consumption. It, therefore,seems prudent to consider the impact of drinks thatcontribute a significant amount to total energy intake(such as high sugar soda drinks) separately from foods.In a cross-over study, Tordoff and Alleva comparedthe consumption of soda (1150 g/d for 3 weeks) whichhad been sweetened with either a high fructose corn syrupor aspartame on body weight. The high fructose sodacondition increased total energy intake by 335 kcal/d andresulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.66 kgcompared to the aspartame soda condition where totalenergy intake decreased by 179 kcal/d and weightdecreased non-significantly by 0.17 kg.

Some fruit drinks and cordial drinks can also be high insugar and may promote weight gain if drunk in largequantities but this has been less extensively studied thansoda drinks.

Overall, the evidence that high sugar drinks promoteweight gain is consistent and moderately strong, but is ofmost relevance in those populations with a high intake(such as children in many countries).

Glycemic index: A further mechanism by whichcarbohydrates may influence energy intake and bodyweight is by their GI. Different carbohydrate foodsincrease blood glucose and serum insulin to varyingextents even when the same amount of carbohydrate iseaten. The different changes in glucose and/or insulin mayhave subsequent effects on food intake or the promotionof overweight and obesity, with lower GI dietsproducing greater satiety. In addition to the effectsof carbohydrates on satiety, there is a suggestion that lowGI diets may provoke greater increases in cholecystokininand fullness post-meal (satiation).

Ludwig et al. demonstrated that voluntary food intakewas greater after high GI meals were consumed comparedto medium and low GI meals. They found that rapidabsorption of glucose altered hormonal and metabolicfunctions and promoted excessive food intake after theingestion of a high GI meal. Agus et al found during arandomised cross-over trial that when the acute (9 days)effects of energy restricted diets of high and low glycemicloads were studied in overweight young men, the highglycemic load diet produced a greater decline in metabolicrate, more negative nitrogen balance and greater voluntaryfood intake.

On energy restrained diets, a 12 week cross-over trial bySlabber et al.demonstrated that a low GI diet producedlower insulin levels and a greater weight loss thancorresponding high GI diets. Spieth et al found thatafter 4 months of intervention, low GI diets may be moreeffective than reduced-fat diets in treating childhoodobesity.

Low GI diets may influence fuel storage by promotingfat oxidation instead of carbohydrate oxidation,whereas raised insulin levels in response to high GI dietsinhibit lipolysis and encourage fat storage, limitingavailable fuels and encouraging overeating.Overall, the current evidence suggests a possibleinfluence of GI on body weight and composition, butlong term trials with changes in body weight as anoutcome are needed before more definitive statementscan be made.

AlcoholAlcohol is an energy dense nutrient (7 kcal/g) and becauseof its place at the top of the oxidative hierarchy, itspotential for sparing fat oxidation and promoting fatstorage is significant. However, some metabolic studiesshow that isocaloric substitution of alcohol for food energyresults in weight loss while the addition of alcohol doesnot promote weight gain. There is a similar paradoxseen in epidemiological studies. Dietary intake surveystend to show that energy from alcohol is additive to foodenergy intake such that total energy intake is higher with ahigher alcohol consumption. However, the relationshipsbetween reported alcohol intake and BMI show amixed pattern. One review of the epidemiologicalevidence, listed 25 studies showing a positive association,18 showing a negative association and 11 showing norelationship. For women, there was often a negativerelationship or possibly U-shaped relationship. Formen, the relationship tends to be slightly positive ornon-existent.

In an earlier review of 27 studies, seven showed anegative relationship between adiposity and alcoholintake, seven showed a positive relationship, nine showeddifferent associations for women and men, and eightshowed no relationship. Emery et al. reviewed theepidemiological studies linking a high alcohol intakewith abdominal fat distribution (high waist circumferenceor waist:hip ratio)137. They concluded that the evidencefor a relationship was moderate for men and suggestive forwomen.

The potential for confounding by concurrent lifestyleand socioeconomic factors is substantial, as is thetendency to underreport alcohol intake. Other factorsalso confound the relationships between alcohol andobesity: alcoholmacronutrient interactions; the possibilitythat obese people have reduced their alcoholconsumption because of their obesity; metabolismthrough pathways with different energetic returns (e.g.alcohol dehydrogenase versus microsomal ethanol oxidizingsystem); and the direct toxic effects of alcohol.

Overall, the epidemiological evidence is mixed andprobably highly confounded. Randomised controlledtrials on the issue are unlikely to be conducted. There iscurrently insufficient evidence to support a general role foralcohol in the development of obesity.

Portion size

The portion size in pre-packaged, ready-to-eat andrestaurant foods is increasing in the US and elsewhere,building on the consumers desire for value for money. Inrecent years the number of restaurants offering supersizeoptions on their menu has rapidly risen, and other fooditems, especially snack foods, have increased packageweight. The increasing size of packaging indicates lowerunit cost and encourages use of more product than smallpackage size. These trends are occurring in manywestern countries but are less well documented than theyare in the US.Supersized portions potentially lead to increasedenergy intakes at the time and over the day and, therefore,could be a significant contributor to obesity, particularly inpopulations with a high use of meals prepared outside thehome. Many people cannot accurately estimate portionsize, and this leads to an underestimation of intake.The energy compensation later in the day after a highenergy meal is incomplete in many individuals. Veryfew studies have examined the impact of portion size onoverall energy consumption. One of these has shown thatportion size promotes a higher total intake and that thisseems to occur in adults and in 5 year olds, but not in 3year olds. The age at which the external cues (such asportion size) begin to influence intake is, therefore,appears to be between 3 and 5 years.Overall, there is strong ecological evidence of aconcurrent increase in portion sizing and obesity incountries such as the US. The proposition that largeportion sizes promote overconsumption is logical andlikely but the empirical studies, while supportive, are veryfew in number

Food marketing sector

Fast food restaurants and energy-dense foods and drinks

are among the most advertised products on television

and children are often the targeted market. The fat, sugar

and energy content of foods advertised to children is very

high compared to their daily needs and most of the foods

advertised fall into the eat least or eat occasionally

sections of the recommended dietary guidelines. Many

studies have documented that the overwhelmingly

dominant messages that are directed at children,

particularly through the powerful medium of television

advertising, are the antithesis of what is recommended for

a healthful diet.

The food industry (mainly fast food restaurants and

manufacturers of high fat or high sugar foods and drinks)

spends huge sums on mass media advertising, mainly

through television advertisements. In 1997, they spent 11

billion US$ in the US alone. The impact of this high

volume of advertising on directing food choices to the

products being advertised has undoubtedly been closely

researched by the companies concerned but very little of

this market research data is publicly available. The high

volume of advertising for energy dense foods and

beverages is undoubtedly fuelling the increasing consumption

of these products.

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher

among children who watch more television, and the

increased energy intakes of these children may be

partly responsible. Advertised products are more often

requested for purchase and consumed by children.

Brand recognition not only encourages children to request

products more often, but also targets those with

discretionary spending money. Childrens behaviour

has been shown to reflect television advertising patterns

even when they know what they should be eating.

Young children under the age of about 68 cannot

distinguish regular programmes from advertisements,

nor do they understand the persuasive intent of

commercials and overweight children with low self esteem

are more susceptible to commercials that promote

consumption of foods for personal enhancement.

Overall, it is probable that the heavy advertising of fast

Nutrition in weight management and obesity: | Neuro Nutrition

How to Lose Weight and Keep It Off –

Feb, 27th 2018 10:45 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

Losing weight seems like a pretty easy concept, when you think about it. You eat less, exercise more and the weight is supposed to come off. The fact is, I’ll bet you already know how to lose weight. If you’re like most of us, you’ve probably lost weight many, many times…so many times, you’re an old pro at it. You may even have your ‘go-to’ diet or exercise program, powering up your old Weight Watcher’s account or starting back to the gym whenever the weight starts to creep up.

But what happens when you go off that diet or stop that workout program? You gain it right back, sometimes with a few extra pounds thrown in.

So what you really want to know isn’t how to lose weight, but how to lose it and then make it stay lost…forever. There’s no real secret to losing weight. The real challenge is making it permanent.

Weight loss is such a complex process, the only way we can really wrap our heads around it is to drill it down into a bunch of numbers. You already know these numbers, probably as well as any weight loss expert: You know that, to lose one pound of fat, you have to burn about 3500 calories over and above what you already burn each day. You don’t really want to burn 3500 calories in one day, but rather to cut that down into daily calorie deficits, say cutting 500 calories a day with a combination of diet and exercise.

To go by the numbers, you have to go through a few calculations:

Your BMR is the most important part of the weight loss calculations because it tells you how many calories your body needs to maintain bodily functions such as breathing and digesting and well, existing. This is the minimum number of calories you need to eat each day. Important Note: No calculator is 100% accurate and these formulas don’t take into account things like bodyfat, frame size or other factors that can make a difference in your BMR. More about your metabolism.

-Sedentary…………….BMR x 1.2 (little exercise)

-Lightly active………..BMR x 1.375 (light exercise)

-Moderately active…..BMR x 1.55 (moderate exercise)

-Very active………….BMR x 1.725 (hard exercise)

-Extremely active……BMR x 1.9 (hard exercise daily)


Mary is 46 years old, is 5’4″ and weighs 165 pounds. These are her stats:

BMR = 1465Activity Level = Moderately Active (1.55)Food Calories = 2700TEF Calories = 270

Mary’s BMR/Activity level is 2270. She’s eating about 2430 calories a day (less her TEF). That means Mary is eating about 160 calories more than what her body needs, which could eventually lead to weight gain.

Is There an Easier Way?

There isn’t an easier way to lose weight, but there is an easier way to figure out how to lose weight, if these formulas are a little too much for you. The absolute simplest involves one thing: Make small changes in your diet and activity levels every single day. With this method, you don’t always know how many calories you’re cutting, or how many calories you’re burning. But, if you’re doing more movement than before and you know you’re eating less than before, you are creating a calorie deficit and the weight loss will follow, even if it’s slow. Some ideas:

Total Calories Saved: 532 (based on a 140-pound person)


Donnelly, J.; Blair, S.; Jakicic, J.; et al. Appropriate Physical Activity Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults. Med & Sci in Sports & Ex: Feb, 2009. Vol 41, Issue 2.

Kelly, Mark. “Resting Metabolic Rate: Best Ways to Measure it – And Raise it, Too.” ACE. Retrieved August 29, 2013.

There’s no doubt that your diet is probably the single most important aspect of a weight loss program. Why? Think about it for a moment; you can easily eat just one wrong thing and end up eating more calories than you’re burning, even if you exercise.

I don’t say this to make you paranoid about every bite you take, but it’s important to understand how this energy balance works so you can get it right.

Say you’ve been eating great all day, tree bark and lemon wedges, water instead of Coke, etc. You’ve been walking all day and you even finish a workout that burns another extra 350 calories. You rock.

Then you go to dinner and have two margaritas and a glass of wine along with dinner. Your drinks alone are worth up to 450 calories and, right there, you’ve canceled out your workout.

That doesn’t mean you have to starve yourself or that you can’t have a margarita from time to time. However, if you really want to lose weight, you have to commit to more exercise and less tequila.

How Much Exercise Do I Need?

Exercise is an important weight loss tool, but how much you need varies from person to person. The guidelines recommend at least 250 minutes per week, which comes out to about 50 minutes, 5 days a week. However, it’s important that you choose the right workouts – Workouts you enjoy and workouts that take you into your target heart rate zone so you can burn more calories.

There are some workouts that are better than others for burning calories including:

The caveat is that these workouts are very advanced and done at a high intensity. If you’re a beginner, even if you used to workout like a crazy person, start with a beginner program to avoid injuries, burnout and misery.

It takes time to build the strength and endurance for high intensity exercise.

Where to Start

You have lots of options for how to start exercising. You could put on some shoes and head out for a walk right now and that would be a great place to start. I also have some programs and articles that offer a little more guidance:

The real key to the weight loss process has nothing to do with actually losing the weight. Most of us can easily figure out how to cut enough calories to do that, right? What we can’t figure out is how to keep that weight off.

There are a number of reasons we regain weight: Following unrealistic diets or exercise programs we can’t sustain, for example, or completely giving up on healthy eating and exercise during the holidays.

We also tend to think that there’s an end to all of this healthy lifestyle stuff. That, as soon as you lose the weight, you can finally enter the ‘maintenance’ phase of your program which, for many of us, means we don’t have to exercise as much and we can finally stop monitoring every single bite we take.

Unfortunately, there is no maintenance phase to the weight loss process. To keep the weight off, you have to do at least as much exercise as you did to lose the weight and, frankly, you may have to do more. The more weight you lose, the less energy your body expends during exercise and the more you have to do to get the same results. Not fair, I know.

So, keeping the weight off has more to do with how you start the weight loss process than how you finish it. To that end, you have to set yourself up for success and to do that you’ll need to find a few things:

Keeping the weight off would be so much easier if there were just one thing you had to do. And, depending on how you look at it, there is just one thing to do to keep the weight off and that is: Keep your calories balanced. It’s that balancing act that requires constant maintenance because it changes from day to day. Getting your mental strategies in order is just as important as the physical strategies and it may help to think about it like this: At its heart, weight loss will happen if you just learn how to take care of yourself. Once you start doing that, you may be surprised that you don’t care as much about the scale anymore.

Originally posted here:
How to Lose Weight and Keep It Off –

Human Longevity, Inc. Scientists Publish Paper Diving …

Feb, 27th 2018 10:44 pm, Article Recommended by Dr. J. Smith

SAN DIEGO, Feb. 26, 2018 /PRNewswire/ — Human Longevity, Inc. scientists have published a significant breakthrough in genomic science by utilizing HLI’s database of whole genome information to better understand the structure and influence of the noncoding genome which accounts for 98% of the overall whole genome. The study was published in the journal Nature Genetics by lead author Julia di Iulio, Ph.D., and senior authors Amalio Telenti, M.D., Ph.D. and J. Craig Venter, Ph.D.

In 2001, Dr. Venter, HLI’s co-founder and CEO, led a team of scientists that sequenced and published the first draft of the human genome, detailing this vast structure. Over the last 17 years, scientists and clinicians have been able to best understand 2% of the whole genome corresponding to the coding genome or elements that make proteins which are core to life.

Today, by being able to study the whole genome rather than smaller portions of the full 6.4 billion letter structure, The HLI’s team was able to identify regions of particular importance to humans and to the expression of disease in other words, where we house illnesses.

By analyzing thousands of genomes, HLI’s scientists determined that the components of the noncoding genome where variation was uncommon meant that those regions could be essential for survival and health, exposing new frontiers for genomic exploration.

Core to this study which took 18 months was identifying the basic structure of the genome by mathematical analysis of blocks of seven-letter units across the genome. From here, the team generated a reference map published in Nature Genetics – to guide scientists towards the portions of the genome HLI’s team determines to be critical for human health.

“What our team has done with this paper is take the next step in harnessing the power and possibility of the genome to benefit our understanding and ideally eradication of disease,” said Dr. Venter. “Our goal at HLI and through the Health Nucleus, our clinical research and discovery center, is to inform and impact individual and population health, and with this knowledge we have taken a significant leap in doing so.”

“It’s likely that much of the 98% of the genome we don’t know much about is dedicated to controlling the 2% we do,” said Amalio Telenti, M.D., Ph.D. who served as HLI’s Chief Scientist. “With this research, we sought to determine where we should be looking for the next medical applications of the genome and I’m proud of the work we have accomplished to further hone this science Craig sparked,” said senior researcher Julia di Iulio, Ph.D.

In addition to scientists at HLI, this work was done in collaboration with scientists from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, the J. Craig Venter Institute, and The Scripps Research Institute.

About Human Longevity, Inc.

Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) is the genomic-based, health intelligence company empowering proactive healthcare and enabling a life better lived. HLI combines the largest database of genomic and phenotypic data with machine learning to drive discoveries and revolutionize the practice of medicine. HLI’s business focus includes the HLI Health Nucleus, a genomic-powered, clinical research and discovery center which uses whole genome sequence analysis, advanced clinical imaging and innovative machine learning, along with curated personal health information, to deliver the most complete picture of individual health. For more information, please visit

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