Search Diet & Weight Topics:
Page 11234..1020..»

Longevity – Wikipedia

27-10-2016 1:47 pm

The word “longevity” is sometimes used as a synonym for “life expectancy” in demography – however, the term “longevity” is sometimes meant to refer only to especially long-lived members of a population, whereas “life expectancy” is always defined statistically as the average number of years remaining at a given age. For example, a population’s life expectancy at birth is the same as the average age at death for all people born in the same year (in the case of cohorts). Longevity is best thought of as a term for general audiences meaning ‘typical length of life’ and specific statistical definitions should be clarified when necessary.

Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the brevity of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. Longevity has been a topic not only for the scientific community but also for writers of travel, science fiction, and utopian novels.

There are many difficulties in authenticating the longest human life span ever by modern verification standards, owing to inaccurate or incomplete birth statistics. Fiction, legend, and folklore have proposed or claimed life spans in the past or future vastly longer than those verified by modern standards, and longevity narratives and unverified longevity claims frequently speak of their existence in the present.

A life annuity is a form of longevity insurance.

Various factors contribute to an individual’s longevity. Significant factors in life expectancy include gender, genetics, access to health care, hygiene, diet and nutrition, exercise, lifestyle, and crime rates. Below is a list of life expectancies in different types of countries:[3]

Population longevities are increasing as life expectancies around the world grow:[1][4]

The Gerontology Research Group validates current longevity records by modern standards, and maintains a list of supercentenarians; many other unvalidated longevity claims exist. Record-holding individuals include:[citation needed]

Evidence-based studies indicate that longevity is based on two major factors, genetics and lifestyle choices.[5]

Twin studies have estimated that approximately 20-30% the variation in human lifespan can be related to genetics, with the rest due to individual behaviors and environmental factors which can be modified.[6] Although over 200 gene variants have been associated with longevity according to a US-Belgian-UK research database of human genetic variants,[7] these explain only a small fraction of the heritability.[8] A 2012 study found that even modest amounts of leisure time physical exercise can extend life expectancy by as much as 4.5 years.[9]

Lymphoblastoid cell lines established from blood samples of centenarians have significantly higher activity of the DNA repair protein PARP (Poly ADP ribose polymerase) than cell lines from younger (20 to 70 year old) individuals.[10] The lymphocytic cells of centenarians have characteristics typical of cells from young people, both in their capability of priming the mechanism of repair after H2O2 sublethal oxidative DNA damage and in their PARP gene expression.[11] These findings suggest that elevated PARP gene expression contributes to the longevity of centenarians, consistent with the DNA damage theory of aging.[12]

A study of the regions of the world known as blue zones, where people commonly live active lives past 100 years of age, speculated that longevity is related to a healthy social and family life, not smoking, eating a plant-based diet, frequent consumption of legumes and nuts, and engaging in regular physical activity.[13] In a cohort study, the combination of a plant based diet, normal BMI, and not smoking accounted for differences up to 15 years in life expectancy.[14] Korean court records going back to 1392 indicate that the average lifespan of eunuchs was 70.0 1.76 years, which was 14.419.1 years longer than the lifespan of non-castrated men of similar socio-economic status.[15] The Alameda County Study hypothesized three additional lifestyle characteristics that promote longevity: limiting alcohol consumption, sleeping 7 to 8 hours per night, and not snacking (eating between meals), although the study found the association between these characteristics and mortality is “weak at best”.[16] There are however many other possible factors potentially affecting longevity, including the impact of high peer competition, which is typically experienced in large cities.[17]

In preindustrial times, deaths at young and middle age were more common than they are today. This is not due to genetics, but because of environmental factors such as disease, accidents, and malnutrition, especially since the former were not generally treatable with pre-20th century medicine. Deaths from childbirth were common in women, and many children did not live past infancy. In addition, most people who did attain old age were likely to die quickly from the above-mentioned untreatable health problems. Despite this, we do find many examples of pre-20th century individuals attaining lifespans of 75 years or greater, including Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Cato the Elder, Thomas Hobbes, Eric of Pomerania, Christopher Polhem, and Michelangelo. This was also true for poorer people like peasants or laborers. Genealogists will almost certainly find ancestors living to their 70s, 80s and even 90s several hundred years ago.

For example, an 1871 census in the UK (the first of its kind, but personal data from other censuses dates back to 1841 and numerical data back to 1801) found the average male life expectancy as being 44, but if infant mortality is subtracted, males who lived to adulthood averaged 75 years. The present male life expectancy in the UK is 77 years for males and 81 for females, while the United States averages 74 for males and 80 for females.

Studies have shown that black American males have the shortest lifespans of any group of people in the US, averaging only 69 years (Asian-American females average the longest).[18] This reflects overall poorer health and greater prevalence of heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer among black American men.

Women normally outlive men, and this was as true in pre-industrial times as today. Theories for this include smaller bodies (and thus less stress on the heart), a stronger immune system (since testosterone acts as an immunosuppressant), and less tendency to engage in physically dangerous activities.

There is a current debate as to whether or not the pursuit of longevity is a worthwhile health care goal for the United States. Bioethicist Ezekiel Emanuel, who is also one of the architects of ObamaCare, has stated that the pursuit of longevity via the compression of morbidity explanation is a “fantasy” and that life is not worth living after age 75; therefore longevity should not be a goal of health care policy.[19] This has been refuted by neurosurgeon Miguel Faria, who states that life can be worthwhile in healthy old age; that the compression of morbidity is a real phenomenon; that longevity should be pursued in association with quality of life.[20] Faria has discussed how longevity in association with leading healthy lifestyles can lead to the postponement of senescence as well as happiness and wisdom in old age.[21]

All of the biological organisms have a limited longevity, and different species of animals and plants have different potentials of longevity. Misrepair-accumulation aging theory [22][23] suggests that the potential of longevity of an organism is related to its structural complexity.[24] Limited longevity is due to the limited structural complexity of the organism. If a species of organisms has too high structural complexity, most of its individuals would die before the reproduction age, and the species could not survive. This theory suggests that limited structural complexity and limited longevity are essential for the survival of a species.

Longevity traditions are traditions about long-lived people (generally supercentenarians), and practices that have been believed to confer longevity.[25][26] A comparison and contrast of “longevity in antiquity” (such as the Sumerian King List, the genealogies of Genesis, and the Persian Shahnameh) with “longevity in historical times” (common-era cases through twentieth-century news reports) is elaborated in detail in Lucian Boia’s 2004 book Forever Young: A Cultural History of Longevity from Antiquity to the Present and other sources.[27]

The Fountain of Youth reputedly restores the youth of anyone who drinks of its waters. The New Testament, following older Jewish tradition, attributes healing to the Pool of Bethesda when the waters are “stirred” by an angel.[28] After the death of Juan Ponce de Len, Gonzalo Fernndez de Oviedo y Valds wrote in Historia General y Natural de las Indias (1535) that Ponce de Len was looking for the waters of Bimini to cure his aging.[29] Traditions that have been believed to confer greater human longevity also include alchemy,[30] such as that attributed to Nicolas Flamel. In the modern era, the Okinawa diet has some reputation of linkage to exceptionally high ages.[31]

More recent longevity claims are subcategorized by many editions of Guinness World Records into four groups: “In late life, very old people often tend to advance their ages at the rate of about 17 years per decade …. Several celebrated super-centenarians (over 110 years) are believed to have been double lives (father and son, relations with the same names or successive bearers of a title) …. A number of instances have been commercially sponsored, while a fourth category of recent claims are those made for political ends ….”[32] The estimate of 17 years per decade was corroborated by the 1901 and 1911 British censuses.[32] Mazess and Forman also discovered in 1978 that inhabitants of Vilcabamba, Ecuador, claimed excessive longevity by using their fathers’ and grandfathers’ baptismal entries.[32][33]Time magazine considered that, by the Soviet Union, longevity had been elevated to a state-supported “Methuselah cult”.[34]Robert Ripley regularly reported supercentenarian claims in Ripley’s Believe It or Not!, usually citing his own reputation as a fact-checker to claim reliability.[35]

The U.S. Census Bureau view on the future of longevity is that life expectancy in the United States will be in the mid-80s by 2050 (up from 77.85 in 2006) and will top out eventually in the low 90s, barring major scientific advances that can change the rate of human aging itself, as opposed to merely treating the effects of aging as is done today. The Census Bureau also predicted that the United States would have 5.3 million people aged over 100 in 2100. The United Nations has also made projections far out into the future, up to 2300, at which point it projects that life expectancies in most developed countries will be between 100 and 106 years and still rising, though more and more slowly than before. These projections also suggest that life expectancies in poor countries will still be less than those in rich countries in 2300, in some cases by as much as 20 years. The UN itself mentioned that gaps in life expectancy so far in the future may well not exist, especially since the exchange of technology between rich and poor countries and the industrialization and development of poor countries may cause their life expectancies to converge fully with those of rich countries long before that point, similarly to the way life expectancies between rich and poor countries have already been converging over the last 60 years as better medicine, technology, and living conditions became accessible to many people in poor countries. The UN has warned that these projections are uncertain, and cautions that any change or advancement in medical technology could invalidate such projections.[36]

Recent increases in the rates of lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, may eventually slow or reverse this trend toward increasing life expectancy in the developed world, but have not yet done so. The average age of the US population is getting higher[37] and these diseases show up in older people.[38]

Jennifer Couzin-Frankel examined how much mortality from various causes would have to drop in order to boost life expectancy and concluded that most of the past increases in life expectancy occurred because of improved survival rates for young people. She states that it seems unlikely that life expectancy at birth will ever exceed 85 years.[39]Michio Kaku argues that genetic engineering, nanotechnology and future breakthroughs will accelerate the rate of life expectancy increase indefinitely.[40] Already genetic engineering has allowed the life expectancy of certain primates to be doubled, and for human skin cells in labs to divide and live indefinitely without becoming cancerous.[41]

However, since 1840, record life expectancy has risen linearly for men and women, albeit more slowly for men. For women the increase has been almost three months per year, for men almost 2.7 months per year. In light of steady increase, without any sign of limitation, the suggestion that life expectancy will top out must be treated with caution. Scientists Oeppen and Vaupel observe that experts who assert that “life expectancy is approaching a ceiling … have repeatedly been proven wrong.” It is thought that life expectancy for women has increased more dramatically owing to the considerable advances in medicine related to childbirth.[42]

Mice have been genetically engineered to live twice as long as ordinary mice. Drugs such as deprenyl are a part of the prescribing pharmacopia of veterinarians specifically to increase mammal lifespan. A large plurality of research chemicals have been described at the scientific literature that increase the lifespan of a number of species.

Some argue that molecular nanotechnology will greatly extend human life spans. If the rate of increase of life span can be raised with these technologies to a level of twelve months increase per year, this is defined as effective biological immortality and is the goal of radical life extension.

Currently living:


Certain exotic organisms do not seem to be subject to aging and can live indefinitely. Examples include Tardigrades and Hydras. That is not to say that these organisms cannot die, merely that they only die as a result of disease or injury rather than age-related deterioration (and that they are not subject to the Hayflick limit).

View original post here:
Longevity – Wikipedia

Weight Management – Facts and Myths on Losing Weight …

27-10-2016 1:46 pm

20 Apr 2016 | 219,296 Views

Wrecks your ability to be healthy and fit, sending you down a path of disease and death (and often disability too). And can hit you even if you look like the picture of health. They’ve tried to discredit it while seeking new prey. Get control of this now, to be the picture of health.

Read the rest here:
Weight Management – Facts and Myths on Losing Weight …

How South Beach Diet Works | Doctor-Designed Weight Loss

27-10-2016 1:46 pm

Skip to main content TODAY’S SPECIAL: 12 FREE Meals + FREE Shipping! details

Discover the secret behind the science. A revolutionary weight loss solution designed by world renowned cardiologist, Dr. Agatston.

Ground-breaking. Life-changing. Proven.

14-Day Body Reboot

Reset your body for rapid weight loss

14 days of specially selected meals delivered to your door

Reduce your cravings for sugar and refined starches

High protein, healthy fats that nourish and satisfy


Steady Weight Loss

Start adding in more foods good carbs from unprocessed, low refined sugar. Whole grains. Fruit. More vegetables

Enjoy fully prepared meals 5 days per week

Plus! Eat on your own 2 days a week. Dine out. Try South Beach recipes. It’s your chance to practice the principles of South Beach

Transform your body with easy-to-follow fitness tips

You’ve Got This!

Enjoy all foods in moderation

Easily follow the basic South Beach principles

Look your best

Enjoy optimal health

With this easy-to-follow program, including fully prepared meals delivered straight to your home, you’ll lose weight fast and learn how to live a lifetime of optimal health.

Enjoy a wide variety of delicious, fresh frozen fully prepared meals. During Phase 1, your first two weeks on South Beach, you’ll receive 14 days of specially selected, gluten-free meals, designed for rapid weight loss. In your third week when you transition to Phase 2, you’ll choose 5 breakfasts plus five entres each for lunch and dinner weekly. Want satisfying, South Beach-approved treats? Add our great tasting, high protein, junk-free snacks to your order.

Eat two full days on your own each week, practicing the principles of the South Beach lifestyle. Dine out. Try a South Beach recipe. Step-by-step, you’re getting stronger, understanding how to make great food choices.

Unlimited counseling. A Quick-Start Guide. Your Daily Meal Planner. An Eating Out Guide. Plus, get tons of recipes and tips to keep you on track while losing weight.

Continued here:
How South Beach Diet Works | Doctor-Designed Weight Loss

How to Lose Weight Fast | 2017

27-10-2016 1:46 pm

There is an old saying You are what you eat. In practical terms, that means 80% of your weight gain is contributed to your nutrition habits.

Other contributors are a sedentary lifestyle, an absence of activity, lack of sleep, anxiety, depression and sometimes a hormonal imbalance. Surprisingly, this bunch of important factors covers only 20% of the problem.

Just think:

What you put into your mouth is significantly more important in terms of weight loss, health and longevity than working out. Four times more, actually. Not the contrary.

This rule is universal. It does not matter if you are a male or a female. This does apply to you.

Yes, there are certain cases (in fact, less than 7%) when it is hormone disruptions that lead to fat deposits.

The truth is:

Those problems, as well as most other health problems, are rooted in bad nutrition.

Unbelievable, but approximately 92% of people who start losing fat, hopelessly throw up their hands in the first two weeks.

Why? They have the wrong and destructive opinion that losing weight is a difficult, scary and disgusting thing and is not for them.

But its absolute trash.

You dont have to exhaust yourself to dizziness on a treadmill or do 700 push-ups a week.


Your first step is to walk to a local Burger King or McDonalds and stuff yourself with the biggest hamburger ever. With the biggest French fries and an ice-cold cup of Coca-Cola (Im not joking).

Then come back home and feel the fluids of happiness running through your whole body. Great job!

Your weight loss journey has just begun. Enjoy the comfort of your chair and the warmth inside of you and go on reading this article

Lets go deep into the process of how your body turns food and liquids, which keep coming from your mouth into the stomach, into energy. Thisis called metabolism.

Metabolismis converting proteins, carbs and fats intoenergy so that your body works properly. To put it even more simple: metabolism is an ability of your body to produce energy.

This brings us to the point:

The main reason why we CONSUME FOODis to have energy for LIVING.

We eat to live, not the contrary.

Remember this golden rule when you are about to set your lips to a creamy muffin.

According to a recent 2015 study of Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, the thrifty metabolism may really prevent you from losing fat.

The speedierthe metabolic rate, the less timeis needed to transformcalories into energy, and the more, consequently,you lose weight.


80% of fatgain is not caused by your metabolism. It is due to your eating habits. The other 20% is left for lack of movement, sleep, stress, hormonal disturbances and, yes, slow metabolism.

When you overeat, your metabolism slows down to be able to handle the insane calorie supply burst. If it didnt, you would be burnt down by the huge amount ofheatreleased after eating.

Therefore, calories which cannot be utilizedfor vital activity are consequently stored in your belly, butt andthighs.


You can help your body convert calories into energy and lose weight much faster. You just need to introduce certain weight loss techniques into your diet pill regimen. They are really simple to memorize.

Knowing and exercising them, you can lose as much weightas you want.

Calorie counting is the worst weight loss method that is available to you when you try to lose your stubborn fat.

It is almost impossible to estimate how many calories each individual needs for daily activity.

For example, I need 2,500 calories a day while you may need only 1,800.

It depends on a variety of factors. Metabolic rate is the most important of them.

Just think of it:

Is your nutritionist able to tell you exactly how many calories are used for each separate process? Absolutely not.

Calorie-counting prevents people from working out at all.

Imagine spending 60 dreadful minutes on a treadmill to burn 400 ridiculous calories (one Big Mac is around 2,000 calories). Finally, you will quit.


Its much better to switch to healthy meals that do not need any calorie counting.

Now you need to stop weighing yourself on a scale and looking at the mirror.

No scale will give you an objective view of yourself.

Why? 1 pound of fat versus 1 pound of muscle looks insanely different (see the picture). It is even more essential for those who target losing fat and gaining muscles simultaneously.

When you see yourself in the mirror on a daily basis, you start to think that there is no progress in weight loss at all. However, this is because your brain adjusts to your current image and does not remember how you looked even 5 days ago.

What can never lie to you is your camera.


To keep you motivated, you should take 1 photo of yourself 2 times per week. At first, it might look stupid or useless to you, but only until you see the first real progress captured in each photo.

This technique is extremely important.

Lets go back to metabolism.

As we said, 10% of energy you consume daily is used for digesting food itself. Its called thermic effect of food.

During each meal intake, the amount of energy that is used for digesting is approximately the same.

Its unbelievable but:

It does not matter if you eat a piece of cheesecake (500 calories) or a Big Mac (2,000 calories), the thermic effect (amount of energy you need to burn them) is absolutely the same.

When you break your daily intake into 5-6 small (9-10 oz. or 250 g each) portions instead of 2-3 big ones, you kill three birds with one stone:

Are you confused about where to get those 5-6 daily portions?

You can simply cook once for 2-3 days and fill your refrigerator with food for each intake (in plastic boxes).

Again, you will obviously want to cheat yourself and eat something like chips or a muffin. Its OK.

But what if you are already used to eating small portions? A small cake or a muffin will definitely do less harm to your shape than 2-3 ones.

As we already said: You are what you eat.

Do you want to be a stinking box full of waste and toxins? Definitely NO!


You cannot allow yourself to eat monotonous food poor in healthy nutrients.

Let your diet be as diversely colorful and rich as possible full of proteins, slow carbs, healthy fats, vitamins and minerals.

Stop eating outside, specifically oil-fried food. If you dont know how to cook (or dont like to), you have to learn. Google is full of healthy and tasty recipes. If you are consistent, your cooking skills can reach a level of art.

We could talk for hours about what you should eat or not to lose weight and keep the results.


There are some simple rules you must follow to get the best results.

Examples: A whole orange is better and healthier than boxed orange juice. Mashed potato is healthier than French fries (but is worse than a baked one). Home-cooked chicken breast is better than McNuggets.

They nourish your body with healthy acids that are extremely important for your vital functions. These are fast carbs, such as sugar, white wheat, agave syrup, and a specific type of processed fats called trans fats (campaign for banning trans fats) that accumulate in your tissues in the form of fat cells.

Therefore: We strongly insist that you eat more products with natural poly- and monounsaturated fat.

And again: Focus on what you eat.

For many trying to lose weight, this technique is the most important one.

It is for those men and women who eat emotionally, not physically.

They treat food mostly as a drug or a temporary solution to their emotional problems (depression, anxiety and fear) caused by financial situations or relationships, for example.

Indeed, specific types of food can act like highly addictive drugs, causing release of serotonin (hormone of happiness) and easing emotional pain.

Scientists know that. This is why obese people dont stop overeating, gain more weight and crave more food. All they do is increase the dosage.

If it is you:

What can really help you is beyond any nutritionists advice or a weight loss plan.

The solution to the problem lies inside of you.

All you need to do is to address emotionally the root of your craving.

Do I want to eat that cake because I am really hungry or is it just an emotional trigger caused by the job I lost or my divorce?

Keep asking yourself such questions before you eat. Train your willpower and the problem will consequently go away by itself.

If it doesnt help, find a therapist or consider getting an efficient appetite suppressant (see below).

80% of your weight loss problem is purely caused by overeating and poor food and drink intake management, not lack of activity or having a sedentary life.

Therefore, changing your diet is a great way to start losing weight. And if you follow the techniques above, make no mistake, you WILL certainly lose a great deal of weight over time.

The question is, is it enough for people who really need to lose a lot of weight (60+ pounds) quickly? In most cases, the answer is no.

Why is it so difficult?

Because, unfortunately, 87% of people do not have enough willpower to stop themselves from overeating.

Moreover, while diet is the answer, its a long, slow, steady process of losing weight with it.

On top of that:

Read the original:
How to Lose Weight Fast | 2017

How To Lose Weight FREE Weight Loss Tips For Losing Fat Fast

27-10-2016 1:46 pm

If I had to guess, Id say the most common goal in the diet and fitness world is weight loss. Nothing else even comes close.

Thats probably why there are thousands of weight loss tips, diets and methods, thousands of programs, plans and products designed for losing weight, and millions of books, websites and articles written about how to lose weight fast.

Its enough to make you head explode. The worst part of all is that most of it is complete crap. Im talking bad information, pointless methods, unproven gimmicks, and just plain old stupid nonsense.

The truth is, losing fat is actually pretty simple, and Im going to explain exactly what you need to do to make it happen as effectively as possible for FREE.

Here now are the only 5 weight loss tips you ever need to hear

Despite how complicated and confusing it all seems, there is literally only one thing you need to do to lose weight. Simply put, you just need to eat less total calories. Thats it.

No matter what youve heard or read or seen before, weight loss is and always will be about calories.

Sure, protein, fat, carbs, different types of foods, supplements, exercise and everything else plays a role to some degree. However, its all secondary to calories. This isnt just an opinion or a guess or a fad its a scientifically proven fact.

Eating less calories (therefore creating a caloric deficit) is the one and only requirement for losing weight. Got that? Good. No other weight loss tip matters if you fail to get this part right. Dont ever forget that or let the other less important stuff get in your way of making this happen.

Well, it works like this. There is a certain number of calories that you need to eat each day in order to maintain your current weight. This is known as your calorie maintenance level.

Its the amount of calories your body burns each day through a combination of activity (walking, standing, moving, etc.) and keeping you alive and functioning (pumping blood, digesting food, breathing, etc.).

Why is this the most important aspect of how to lose weight? Simple

So, losing weight is just a matter of consistently eating less calories than you burn. Theres honestly nothing more to it than that.

Which means, if youre not losing weight now (or at any point in the future), youre just eating too many calories. Its not the type of foods, or the amount of carbs, or any other silly crap. Its calories.

This brings us to the most important question of all how many calories do you need to eat per day to lose weight as fast as you realistically should? To answer this question, you just need to figure out what your calorie maintenance level is and then eat less than that amount each day.

To do this, just fill out the calorie maintenance level calculator below and click Calculate! to get what should be a pretty fast and accurate estimate.

Calorie Maintenance Calculator

The amount given above is an estimate of how many calories you need to eat per day to MAINTAIN your current weight. In order to lose weight, you need to eat LESS calories than this amount.

How much less? Well, in most cases, you should eat 20% fewer calories per day.

So, whatever maintenance level the calculator estimated for you, figure out what 20% of that amount is and then subtract it from the total. For example, if your estimated maintenance level was 2500 calories (just an example), youd first calculate 20% of 2500 and get 500 (2500 x 0.20 = 500). Then just subtract that 500 from the 2500 total and get 2000.

In this example, this person would need to eat about 2000 calories per day to lose weight as fast as they should. How fast is that? Well

If your calorie intake is indeed accurate, most people should end up losing between 0.5-2 pounds per week.

This is the rate most often recommend by virtually every expert with half a brain. I personally recommend it, too.

Specifically, people with A LOT of weight to lose should end up losing closer to 2 pounds (or maybe more early on) per week. People with A LITTLE bit of weight to lose should end up losing closer to 0.5-1 pound per week. People with an AVERAGE amount of weight to lose should end up losing between 1-2 pounds per week.

To make sure this is happening correctly, weigh yourself at least once per week (always first thing in the morning on an empty stomach) and make sure weight loss is taking place as fast as it should be.

Basically, your goal is to make weight loss happen at the ideal rate I described. If it is, youre perfect. If its not, then just make a small adjustment to your calorie intake, wait a week or two, and see what your weight does then. Is it decreasing at the ideal rate now? If so, keep eating that amount of calories. If not, adjust again until it is.

If youve ever been confused about how to lose weight, this is the point when you need to sit back and smile. You now know EXACTLY what you need to do.

The following weight loss tips will definitely be helpful too, but this first tip is one that matters most. Remember that.

Calories are always the most important aspect of losing weight, but after that its protein.

As Ive explained before (High Protein Diet), protein plays 3 very important roles in the weight loss process:

So, how much protein should you eat to get these fat loss benefits? Well, this depends on whether or not you will be doing any form of exercise (weight training, cardio or both).

(If you are significantly overweight, you should use your target body weight instead of your current body weight when calculating your protein intake. So, a 350lb person looking to get down to 250lbs would use 250lbs as their weight. If you have a more average amount of weight to lose, use your current weight.)

Common high protein foods include chicken, turkey, fish, lean cuts of meat, eggs and protein supplements.

When the question of how to lose weight comes up, exercise is almost always one of the first answers given.

The thing is, the type of exercise people usually talk about is cardio, not weight training. You know, stuff like like jogging or riding a bike.

Why? Because cardio is the form of exercise that burns the most calories. Remember the first weight loss tip on this list? You know eat less calories? Well, another way of creating that same effect is by burning more calories.

For this reason, cardio can definitely be useful for losing weight. The problem is, people tend to grossly overestimate the amount calories they burn during cardio (its much less than people think), and its just so much quicker and easier to eat less calories than it is to get on a treadmill and burn that same amount of calories on a daily basis.

For this reason, cardio is completely optional for losing weight. I recommend making weight loss happen primarily through your diet, and then, if you want to (or just prefer to), use cardio as a secondary part of the overall picture. (Additional info here: Best Time To Do Cardio For Weight Loss)

On the other hand, I think weight training should be a requirement. Why? Well, theres a few reasons:

Convinced? You should be. Of course, now youre probably wondering how to create the best weight training routine. Its okay, I got you covered. My guide to Workout Routines is the best place to start.

Once again, the most important part of how to lose weight is your diet, and the most important part of your diet is calories. After that, its protein.

As for everything after that, here now are some additional weight loss tips for getting the rest of your diet right:

Beyond all of the above, here are the only other weight loss tips truly worth mentioning

You now know exactly how to lose weight as effectively and (realistically) fast as possible. All thats left for you to do now is put it all together perfectly and actually do it! Of course, for most people, thats the hardest part.

What I mean is, you probably still have some additional questions about designing the weight loss diet and workout that will work as quickly and easily for you as possible. You may also just want some help doing it. Well, after nearly 10 years of people asking for it, Ive finally created the solution.

Its called The Ultimate Fat Loss & Muscle Building Guide, and in it I provide every additional answer, detail and fact you will ever need to get the best results as fast as possible. It contains the proven diet and workout system Ive used to help countless men and women lose fat permanently and completely transform their bodies.

Ready to do the same? Then go here to learn all about it: The Ultimate Fat Loss & Muscle Building Guide

Here is the original post:
How To Lose Weight FREE Weight Loss Tips For Losing Fat Fast

HCG Diet Manuscript – HCG Diet Info

26-10-2016 10:49 pm

POUNDS & INCHES A NEW APPROACH TO OBESITY The Original HCG Diet Manuscript as written by DR. A.T.W. SIMEONS


We have taken the time to create a database of the original manuscript, separated by its own Table of Contents for your convenience. You may use this page to easily skip to the various sections of the book, or scroll down to see the manuscript in its entirety.

There is now a PDF version of the manuscript available here.

If you are looking for a quick summary of the original VLCD (very low calorie diet), that is available here: Original 500 Calorie Food MenuWho was Dr A.T.W. Simeons?

Dr. Simeons Manuscript- Forward -1 The Nature of Obesity 2 The History of Obesity 3 The Significance of Regular Meals 4 Three Kinds of Fat 5 Injustice to the Obese 6 Glandular Theories 7 The Hypothalamus 8 The Fat Bank 9 The Three Basics of Obesity 10 Psychological Aspects 11 Compulsive Eating 12 Reluctance to Lose Weight 13 Not by Weight Alone 14 Signs and Symptoms of Obesity 15 The Emaciated Lady 16 Fat but Not Obese 17 The Treatment of Obesity 18 A Curious Observation 19 Fat on the Move 20 Pregnancy and Obesity 21 The Nature of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin -22 The Real Gonadotrophins -23 HCG no Sex Hormone 24 Importance and Potency of HCG-25 Complicating Disorders-26 Diabetes-27 Rheumatism-28 Cholesterol-29 Gout-30 Blood Pressure-31 Peptic Ulcer-32 Psoriasis, Fingernails, Hair, Varicose Ulcers 33 The Pregnant Male -34 Technique Warning History Taking -35 Duration of Treatment 36 Immunity to hCG -37 Menstruation -38 Further Courses 39 Conditions that must be accepted before treatment -40 Examining the Patient -41 Gain before Loss -42 Starting Treatment -43 The Diet 44 Making up the calories 45 Vegetarians 46 Faulty Dieting -47 vitamins and anemia- 48 The First Days of Treatment 49 Fluctuations in weight loss -50 Interruptions of Weight Loss and The Plateau 51 Menstrual Interruption -52 Dietary Errors 53 Water 54 Constipation 55 Investigating Dietary Errors -56 Liars and Fools -57 Cosmetics -58 The Voice for singers -59 Other Reasons for a Gain 60 Appetite-reducing Drugs-61 Unforeseen Interruptions of Treatment -62 Muscular Fatigue -63 Massage -64 Blood Sugar 65 The Ratio of Pounds to Inches 66 Preparing the Solution 67 Injecting 68 fibroids and gallstones -69 The Heart and Coronary Occlusion 70 Teeth and Vitamins -71 Alcohol 72 Tuberculosis 73 The Painful Heel 74 The Skeptical Patient 75 Concluding a Course -76 Skipping a Meal -77 Losing more Weight -78 Trouble After Treatment -79 Beware of Over-enthusiasm -80 Protein deficiency -81 Relapses 82 Plan of a Normal Course -83 CONCLUSION -84 GLOSSARY -85 Literary References to the Use of Chorionic Gonadotropin In Obesity -86




The most frequently sought passages of the manuscript are marked by advertisements to help you find them easier.

For easier bookmarking, we have created a separate page with a summary of the original500 calorie (vlcd) a day dietin this manuscript.

You may also viewPounds and Inches table of contentsto read the manuscript according to section topic.

This book discusses a new interpretation of the nature of obesity, and while it does not advocate yet another fancy slimming diet it does describe a method of treatment which has grown out of theoretical considerations based on clinical observation.

What I have to say is an essence of views distilled out of forty years of grappling with the fundamental problems of obesity, its causes, its symptoms, and its very nature. In these many years of specialized work thousands of cases have passed through my hands and were carefully studied. Every new theory, every new method, every promising lead was considered, experimentally screened and critically evaluated as soon as it became known. But invariably the results were disappointing and lacking in uniformity.

I felt that we were merely nibbling at the fringe of a great problem, as, indeed, do most serious students of overweight. We have grown pretty sure that the tendency to accumulate abnormal fat is a very definite metabolic disorder, much as is, for instance, diabetes. Yet the localization and the nature of this disorder remained a mystery. Every new approach seemed to lead into a blind alley, and though patients were told that they are fat because they eat too much, we believed that this is neither the whole truth nor the last word in the matter.

Refusing to be side-tracked by an all too facile interpretation of obesity, I have always held that overeating is the result of the disorder, not its cause, and that we can make little headway until we can build for ourselves some sort of theoretical structure with which to explain the condition. Whether such a structure represents the truth is not important at this moment. What it must do is to give us an intellectually satisfying interpretation of what is happening in the obese body. It must also be able to withstand the onslaught of all hitherto known clinical facts and furnish a hard background against which the results of treatment can be accurately assessed.

To me this requirement seems basic, and it has always been the center of my interest. In dealing with obese patients it became a habit to register and order every clinical experience as if it were an odd looking piece of a jig-saw puzzle. And then, as in a jig saw puzzle, little clusters of fragments began to form, though they seemed to fit in nowhere. As the years passed these clusters grew bigger and started to amalgamate until, about sixteen years ago, a complete picture became dimly discernible. This picture was, and still is, dotted with gaps for which I cannot find the pieces, but I do now feel that a theoretical structure is visible as a whole.

With mounting experience, more and more facts seemed to fit snugly into the new framework, and when then a treatment based on such speculations showed consistently satisfactory results, I was sure that some practical advance had been made, regardless of whether the theoretical interpretation of these results is correct or not.

The clinical results of the new treatment have been published in scientific journal[1]and these reports have been generally well received by the profession, but the very nature of a scientific article does not permit the full presentation of new theoretical concepts nor is there room to discuss the finer points of technique and the reasons for observing them.

During the 16 years that have elapsed since I first published my findings, I have had many hundreds of inquiries from research institutes, doctors and patients. Hitherto I could only refer those interested to my scientific papers, though I realized that these did not contain sufficient information to enable doctors to conduct the new treatment satisfactorily. Those who tried were obliged to gain their own experience through the many trials and errors which I have long since overcome.

Doctors from all over the world have come to Italy to study the method, first hand in my clinic in the Salvator Mundi International Hospital in Rome. For some of them the time they could spare has been too short to get a full grasp of the technique, and in any case the number of those whom I have been able to meet personally is small compared with the many requests for further detailed information which keep coming in. I have tried to keep up with these demands by correspondence, but the volume of this work has become unmanageable and that is one excuse for writing this book.

In dealing with a disorder in which the patient must take an active part in the treatment, it is, I believe, essential that he or she have an understanding of what is being done and why. Only then can there be intelligent cooperation between physician and patient. In order to avoid writing two books, one for the physician and another for the patient a prospect which would probably have resulted in no book at all I have tried to meet the requirements of both in a single book. This is a rather difficult enterprise in which I may not have succeeded. The expert will grumble about long-windedness while the lay-reader may occasionally have to look up an unfamiliar word in the glossary provided for him.

To make the text more readable I shall be unashamedly authoritative and avoid all the hedging and tentativeness with which it is customary to express new scientific concepts grown out of clinical experience and not as yet confirmed by clear-cut laboratory experiments. Thus, when I make what reads like a factual statement, the professional reader may have to translate into: clinical experience seems to suggest that such and such an observation might be tentatively explained by such and such a working hypothesis, requiring a vast amount of further research before the hypothesis can be considered a valid theory. If we can from the outset establish this as a mutually accepted convention, I hope to avoid being accused of speculative exuberance.


As a basis for our discussion we postulate that obesity in all its many forms is due to an abnormal functioning of some part of the body and that every ounce of abnormally accumulated fat is always the result of the same disorder of certain regulatory mechanisms. Persons suffering from this particular disorder will get fat regardless of whether they eat excessively, normally or less than normal. A person who is free of the disorder will never get fat, even if he frequently overeats.

Those in whom the disorder is severe will accumulate fat very rapidly, those in whom it is moderate will gradually increase in weight and those in whom it is mild may be able to keep their excess weight stationary for long periods. In all these cases a loss of weight brought about by dieting, treatments with thyroid, appetite-reducing drugs, laxatives, violent exercise, massage, baths, etc., is only temporary and will be rapidly regained as soon as the reducing regimen is relaxed. The reason is simply that none of these measures corrects the basic disorder.

While there are great variations in the severity of obesity, we shall consider all the different forms in both sexes and at all ages as always being due to the same disorder. Variations in form would then be partly a matter of degree, partly an inherited bodily constitution and partly the result of a secondary involvement of endocrine glands such as the pituitary, the thyroid, the adrenals or the sex glands. On the other hand, we postulate that no deficiency of any of these glands can ever directly produce the common disorder known as obesity.

If this reasoning is correct, it follows that a treatment aimed at curing the disorder must be equally effective in both sexes, at all ages and in all forms of obesity. Unless this is so, we are entitled to harbor grave doubts as to whether a given treatment corrects the underlying disorder. Moreover, any claim that the disorder has been corrected must be substantiated by the ability of the patient to eat normally of any food he pleases without regaining abnormal fat after treatment. Only if these conditions are fulfilled can we legitimately speak of curing obesity rather than of reducing weight.

Our problem thus presents itself as an enquiry into the localization and the nature of the disorder which leads to obesity. The history of this enquiry is a long series of high hopes and bitter disappointments.

The History of Obesity

There was a time, not so long ago, when obesity was considered a sign of health and prosperity in man and of beauty, amorousness and fecundity in women. This attitude probably dates back to Neolithic times, about 8000 years ago; when for the first time in the history of culture, man began to own property, domestic animals, arable land, houses, pottery and metal tools. Before that, with the possible exception of some races such as the Hottentots, obesity was almost non-existent, as it still is in all wild animals and most primitive races.

Today obesity is extremely common among all civilized races, because a disposition to the disorder can be inherited. Wherever abnormal fat was regarded as an asset, sexual selection tended to propagate the trait. It is only in very recent times that manifest obesity has lost some of its allure, though the cult of the outsize bust always a sign of latent obesity shows that the trend still lingers on.

The Significance of Regular Meals

In the early Neolithic times another change took place which may well account for the fact that today nearly all inherited dispositions sooner or later develop into manifest obesity. This change was the institution of regular meals. In pre-Neolithic times, man ate only when he was hungry and on1y as much as he required to still the pangs of hunger. Moreover, much of his food was raw and all of it was unrefined. He roasted his meat, but he did not boil it, as he had no pots, and what little he may have grubbed from the Earth and picked from the trees, he ate as he went along.

The whole structure of mans omnivorous digestive tract is, like that of an ape, rat or pig, adjusted to the continual nibbling of tidbits. It is not suited to occasional gorging as is, for instance, the intestine of the carnivorous cat family. Thus the institution of regular meals, particularly of food rendered rapidly assimilable, placed a great burden on modern mans ability to cope with large quantities of food suddenly pouring into his system from the intestinal tract.

The institution of regular meals meant that man had to eat more than his body required at the moment of eating so as to tide him over until the next meal. Food rendered easily digestible suddenly flooded his body with nourishment of which he was in no need at the moment. Somehow, somewhere this surplus had to be stored.

Three Kinds of Fat

In the human body we can distinguish three kinds of fat. The first is the structural fat which fills the gaps between various organs, a sort of packing material. Structural fat also performs such important functions as bedding the kidneys in soft elastic tissue, protecting the coronary arteries and keeping the skin smooth and taut. It also provides the springy cushion of hard fat under the bones of the feet, without which we would be unable to walk.

The second type of fat is a normal reserve of fuel upon which the body can freely draw when the nutritional income from the intestinal tract is insufficient to meet the demand. Such normal reserves are localized all over the body. Fat is a substance which packs the highest caloric value into the smallest space so that normal reserves of fuel for muscular activity and the maintenance of body temperature can be most economically stored in this form. Both these types of fat, structural and reserve, are normal, and even if the body stocks them to capacity this can never be called obesity.

But there is a third type of fat which is entirely abnormal. It is the accumulation of such fat, and of such fat only, from which the overweight patient suffers. This abnormal fat is also a potential reserve of fuel, but unlike the normal reserves it is not available to the body in a nutritional emergency. It is, so to speak, locked away in a fixed deposit and is not kept in a current account[2], as are the normal reserves.

When an obese patient tries to reduce by starving himself, he will first lose his normal fat reserves. When these are exhausted he begins to burn up structural fat, and only as a last resort will the body yield its abnormal reserves, though by that time the patient usually feels so weak and hungry that the diet is abandoned. It is just for this reason that obese patients complain that when they diet they lose the wrong fat. They feel famished and tired and their face becomes drawn and haggard, but their belly, hips, thighs and upper arms show little improvement. The fat they have come to detest stays on and the fat they need to cover their bones gets less and less. Their skin wrinkles and they look old and miserable. And that is one of the most frustrating and depressing experiences a human being can have.

Injustice to the Obese

When then obese patients are accused of cheating, gluttony, lack of will power, greed and sexual complexes, the strong become indignant and decide that modern medicine is a fraud and its representatives fools, while the weak just give up the struggle in despair. In either case the result is the same: a further gain in weight, resignation to an abominable fate and the resolution at least to live tolerably the short span allotted to them a fig for doctors and insurance companies.

Obese patients only feel physically well as long as they are stationary or gaining weight. They may feel guilty, owing to the lethargy and indolence always associated with obesity. They may feel ashamed of what they have been led to believe is a lack of control. They may feel horrified by the appearance of their nude body and the tightness of their clothes. But they have a primitive feeling of animal content which turns to misery and suffering as soon as they make a resolute attempt to reduce. For this there are sound reasons.

In the first place, more caloric energy is required to keep a large body at a certain temperature than to heat a small body. Secondly the muscular effort of moving a heavy body is greater than in the case of a light body. The muscular effort consumes Calories which must be provided by food. Thus, all other factors being equal, a fat person requires more food than a lean one. One might therefore reason that if a fat person eats only the additional food his body requires he should be able to keep his weight stationary. Yet every physician who has studied obese patients under rigorously controlled conditions knows that this is not true.

Many obese patients actually gain weight on a diet which is calorically deficient for their basic needs. There must thus be some other mechanism at work.

Glandular Theories

At one time it was thought that this mechanism might be concerned with the sex glands. Such a connection was suggested by the fact that many juvenile obese patients show an under-development of the sex organs. The middle-age spread in men and the tendency of many women to put on weight in the menopause seemed to indicate a causal connection between diminishing sex function and overweight. Yet, when highly active sex hormones became available, it was found that their administration had no effect whatsoever on obesity. The sex glands could therefore not be the seat of the disorder.

The Thyroid Gland

When it was discovered that the thyroid gland controls the rate at which body-fuel is consumed, it was thought that by administering thyroid gland to obese patients their abnormal fat deposits could be burned up more rapidly. This too proved to be entirely disappointing, because as we now know, these abnormal deposits take no part in the bodys energy-turnover they are inaccessibly locked away. Thyroid medication merely forces the body to consume its normal fat reserves, which are already depleted in obese patients, and then to break down structurally essential fat without touching the abnormal deposits. In this way a patient may be brought to the brink of starvation in spite of having a hundred pounds of fat to spare. Thus any weight loss brought about by thyroid medication is always at the expense of fat of which the body is in dire need.

While the majority of obese patients have a perfectly normal thyroid gland and some even have an overactive thyroid, one also occasionally sees a case with a real thyroid deficiency. In such cases, treatment with thyroid brings about a small loss of weight, but this is not due to the loss of any abnormal fat. It is entirely the result of the elimination of a mucoid substance, called myxedema, which the body accumulates when there is a marked primary thyroid deficiency. Moreover, patients suffering only from a severe lack of thyroid hormone never become obese in the true sense. Possibly also the observation that normal persons though not the obese lose weight rapidly when their thyroid becomes overactive may have contributed to the false notion that thyroid deficiency and obesity are connected. Much misunderstanding about the supposed role of the thyroid gland in obesity is still met with, and it is now really high time that thyroid preparations be once and for all struck off the list of remedies for obesity. This is particularly so because giving thyroid gland to an obese patient whose thyroid is either normal or overactive, besides being useless, is decidedly dangerous.

The Pituitary Gland

The next gland to be falsely incriminated was the anterior lobe of the pituitary, or hypophysis. This most important gland lies well protected in a bony capsule at the base of the skull. It has a vast number of functions in the body, among which is the regulation of all the other important endocrine glands. The fact that various signs of anterior pituitary deficiency are often associated with obesity raised the hope that the seat of the disorder might be in this gland. But although a large number of pituitary hormones have been isolated and many extracts of the gland prepared, not a single one or any combination of such factors proved to be of anyvalue in the treatment of obesity. Quite recently, however, a fat-mobilizing factor has been found in pituitary glands, but it is still too early to say whether this factor is destined to play a role in the treatment of obesity.

The Adrenals

Recently, a long series of brilliant discoveries concerning the working of the adrenal or suprarenal glands, small bodies which sit atop the kidneys, have created tremendous interest. This interest also turned to the problem of obesity when it was discovered that a condition which in some respects resembles a severe case of obesity the so called Cushings Syndrome was caused by a glandular new-growth of the adrenals or by their excessive stimulation with ACTH, which is the pituitary hormone governing the activity of the outer rind or cortex of the adrenals.

When we learned that an abnormal stimulation of the adrenal cortex could produce signs that resemble true obesity, this knowledge furnished no practical means of treating obesity by decreasing the activity of the adrenal cortex. There is no evidence to suggest that in obesity there is any excess of adrenocortical activity; in fact, all the evidence points to the contrary. There seems to be rather a lack of adrenocortical function and a decrease in the secretion of ACTH from the anterior pituitary lobe.[3]

So here again our search for the mechanism which produces obesity led us into a blind alley. Recently, many students of obesity have reverted to the nihilistic attitude that obesity is caused simply by overeating and that it can only be cured by under eating.

The Diencephalon or Hypothalamus

For those of us who refused to be discouraged there remained one slight hope. Buried deep down in the massive human brain there is a part which we have in common with all vertebrate animals the so-called diencephalon. It is a very primitive part of the brain and has in man been almost smothered by the huge masses of nervous tissue with which we think, reason and voluntarily move our body. The diencephalon is the part from which the central nervous system controls all the automatic animal functions of the body, such as breathing, the heart beat, digestion, sleep, sex, the urinary system, the autonomous or vegetative nervous system and via the pituitary the whole interplay of the endocrine glands.

It was therefore not unreasonable to suppose that the complex operation of storing and issuing fuel to the body might also be controlled by the diencephalon. It has long been known that the content of sugar another form of fuel in the blood depends on a certain nervous center in the diencephalon. When this center is destroyed in laboratory animals, they develop a condition rather similar to human stable diabetes. It has also long been known that the destruction of another diencephalic center produces a voracious appetite and a rapid gain in weight in animals which never get fat spontaneously.

The Fat-bank

Assuming that in man such a center controlling the movement of fat does exist, its function would have to be much like that of a bank. When the body assimilates from the intestinal tract more fuel than it needs at the moment, this surplus is deposited in what may be compared with a current account. Out of this account it can always be withdrawn as required. All normal fat reserves are in such a current account, and it is probable that a diencephalic center manages the deposits and withdrawals.

When now, for reasons which will be discussed later, the deposits grow rapidly while small withdrawals become more frequent, a point may be reached which goes beyond the diencephalons banking capacity. Just as a banker might suggest to a wealthy client that instead of accumulating a large and unmanageable current account he should invest his surplus capital, the body appears to establish a fixed deposit into which all surplus funds go but from which they can no longer be withdrawn by the procedure used in a current account. In this way the diencephalic fat-bank frees itself from all work which goes beyond its normal banking capacity. The onset of obesity dates from the moment the diencephalon adopts this labor-saving ruse. Once a fixed deposit has been established the normal fat reserves are held at a minimum, while every available surplus is locked away in the fixed deposit and is therefore taken out of normal circulation.


(1)The Inherited Factor

Assuming that there is a limit to the diencephalons fat banking capacity, it follows that there are three basic ways in which obesity can become manifest. The first is that the fat-banking capacity is abnormally low from birth. Such a congenitally low diencephalic capacity would then represent the

inherited factor in obesity. When this abnormal trait is markedly present, obesity will develop at an early age in spite of normal feeding; this could explain why among brothers and sisters eating the same food at the same table some become obese and others do not.

(2)Other Diencephalic Disorders

The second way in which obesity can become established is the lowering of a previously normal fat-banking capacity owing to some other diencephalic disorder. It seems to be a general rule that when one of the many diencephalic centers is particularly overtaxed; it tries to increase its capacity at the expense of other centers.

In the menopause and after castration the hormones previously produced in the sex-glands no longer circulate in the body. In the presence of normally functioning sex-glands their hormones act as a brake on the secretion of the sex-gland stimulating hormones of the anterior pituitary. When this brake is removed the anterior pituitary enormously increases its output of these sex-gland stimulating hormones, though they are now no longer effective. In the absence of any response from the non-functioning or missing sex glands, there is nothing to stop the anterior pituitary from producing more and more of these hormones. This situation causes an excessive strain on the diencephalic center which controls the function of the anterior pituitary. In order to cope with this additional burden the center appears to draw more and more energy away from other centers, such as those concerned with emotional stability, the blood circulation (hot flushes) and other autonomous nervous regulations, particularly also from the not so vitally important fat-bank.

The so-called stable type of diabetes heavily involves the diencephalic blood sugar regulating center. The diencephalon tries to meet this abnormal load by switching energy destined for the fat bank over to the sugar-regulating center, with the result that the fat-banking capacity is reduced to the point at which it is forced to establish a fixed deposit and thus initiate the disorder we call obesity. In this case one would have to consider the diabetes the primary cause of the obesity, but it is also possible that the process is reversed in the sense that a deficient or overworked fat-center draws energy from the sugar-center, in which case the obesity would be the cause of that type of diabetes in which the pancreas is not primarily involved. Finally, it is conceivable that in Cushings syndrome those symptoms which resemble obesity are entirely due to the withdrawal of energy from the diencephalic fat-bank in order to make it available to the highly disturbed center which governs the anterior pituitary adrenocortical system.

Whether obesity is caused by a marked inherited deficiency of the fat-center or by some entirely different diencephalic regulatory disorder, its insurgence obviously has nothing to do with overeating and in either case obesity is certain to develop regardless of dietary restrictions. In these cases any enforced food deficit is made up from essential fat reserves and normal structural fat, much to the disadvantage of the patients general health.

3)The Exhaustion of the Fat-bank

But there is still a third way in which obesity can become established, and that is when a presumably normal fat-center is suddenly the emphasis is on suddenly called upon to deal with an enormous influx of food far in excess of momentary requirements. At first glance it does seem that here we have a straight-forward case of overeating being responsible for obesity, but on further analysis it soon becomes clear that the relation of cause and effect is not so simple. In the first place we are merely assuming that the capacity of the fat center is normal while it is possible and even probable that only persons who have some inherited trait in this direction can become obese merely by overeating.

View post:
HCG Diet Manuscript – HCG Diet Info

Phoenix HCG Injections | HCG Injections in Phoenix …

22-10-2016 8:41 am

Looking to shed a few pounds fast?You are in luck. Our Phoenix HCG Diet Programs and physician guided weight loss programs can help you get the weight off and keep it off! We have been serving the Phoenix and Scottsdale area for over 5 years and have helped hundreds of people just like you loose weight and keep it off, no gimmicks, no tricks. We tailor our programs to your needs. Fast or slow we can help you reach and maintain your weight loss goal. Give us a call and let us help.

More on our Phoenix HCG Diet program

Dieting, the very sound of the word inspires dread in most. You want to lose weight, but the constant hunger pangs, the cravings, and the challenge of knowing what to eat make the odds of sticking with your diet seem unlikely. Luckily there’s now a safe way to diet without the constant headaches and hunger, irritability, or confusion about what to eat. Human chronic gonadotrophin, or HCG for short, is a naturally produced hormone that can help. When HCG is introduced to the body in conjunction with a 500 calorie a day diet, it has been shown to alleviate discomfort associated with dieting easing the discomfort with dieting.

ThisPhoenix HCG injections weight loss regimen consists…..Read more on HCG Phoenix DietProgram

More on Medical Weight Loss Programs

Ourmedical weight loss programcan address such as a thyroid problem,hormone imbalance, vitamin deficiencies, poor diet and more.Hormone balancing in conjunction with or separate from the HCG weight loss program has also helped a lot of our patients reach their goals.

More on Injections for Weight Loss

Ourinjections for weight lossprogram is a cost effective and simple program that allows you to get started with weight loss quickly and get guidance on diet along the way.

SW Integrative Medicine is a full service weight loss clinic that offers Phoenix HCG Injections and other weight loss programs. We’ll help you design a low calorie diet that works for you and then provide all the necessary tools to get you to your weight loss goals. With phoenix hcg injections and our skilled weight loss physicians you can’t go wrong.You’ll be amazed at how fast and easy dieting can be with the help of phoenix hcg diet program or other physician guided weight loss program.Depending on which program you choose we provide recommendations on diet, exercise, hormone imbalances, vitamin deficiencies and more.

To start your Phoenix HCG Injections Diet and your phoenix weight loss journey, call us today 480 451 5407 or set up a free consultation!

Southwest Integrative Medicine 4045 E Bell Road Ste 107 Phoenix, AZ 85032 (480).451.5407

Read more here:
Phoenix HCG Injections | HCG Injections in Phoenix …

Welcome to HCG

22-10-2016 8:41 am

We are proud to bring you something new, in addition to our highly successful HCG program.

By Chromogenex

The FIRST non-invasive laser skin contact system to receive FDA approval forfat reduction!



Call now to schedule your FREE consultation!Not local to the area, thats okay!! We can schedule to do your consultation over the phone!!

We offer 100% prescription strength HCG injections, Oral tablets, and Oral drops.

Direct oversight from the clinic RN for our diabetic and high blood pressure clients.

Metabolic Weightloss Clinic is a unique specialty HCG weightloss clinic providing the most up to date HCG program based upon the Dr Simeons original protocol. We offer unlimited counseling, physician visits, diet and nutrition counseling, extensive literature, and a fully trained professional staff to assist you. We are here to help you attain your weight loss goals.

Our clients have experienced better control of their Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, and Diabetes. Many have lost a significant amount of weight allowing them to successfully undergo knee or hip replacement surgery, which had previous concerns with obesity.

It has been incidental that clients with skin problems such as psoriasis or arthritis, have had decreased pain and outbreaks during the use of HCG.

HCG Injections provide the greatest amount of weight-loss in the shortest period of time. Average loss 1/2 lbs. 3 lbs. a day. HCG is given with a small insulin syringe, providing the ultimate in weight loss without being hungry. All programs provide counseling, diet education and physician consultation in an integrated wellness setting of professional staff. Get started with targeted weight-loss with HCG.

Many patients have:

-High Blood Pressure

-Elevated Cholesterol


-Heart Disease


-Back Problems

-Total Knee Replacements

-Total Hip Replacements

-Struggling with not being able to lose weight!

View post:
Welcome to HCG

Diet (nutrition) – Wikipedia

21-10-2016 5:40 pm

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.

Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity.

Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, and Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains are strictly vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted.

Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g. flexitarianism, vegetarianism, veganism, fruitarianism) for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment, although some of the public assumptions about which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect.[2]Raw foodism is another contemporary trend. These diets may require tuning or supplementation such as vitamins to meet ordinary nutritional needs.

A particular diet may be chosen to seek weight loss or weight gain. Changing a subject’s dietary intake, or “going on a diet”, can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body. Some foods are specifically recommended, or even altered, for conformity to the requirements of a particular diet. These diets are often recommended in conjunction with exercise. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful to health, while others may be beneficial and can thus be coined as healthy diets. The terms “healthy diet” and “diet for weight management” are often related, as the two promote healthy weight management. Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems, and will provide the body with the right balance of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.[3]

An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive diet.

A healthy diet may improve or maintain optimal health. In developed countries, affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and possibly inappropriate food choices.[4]

Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eat plant-based food, limit red and processed meat, and limit alcohol.[5]

Read the original:
Diet (nutrition) – Wikipedia

Human chorionic gonadotropin – Wikipedia

20-10-2016 8:41 am

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.[1][2] The presence of hCG is detected in some pregnancy tests (HCG pregnancy strip tests). Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant can lead to a cancer diagnosis and, if high enough, paraneoplastic syndromes. However, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause or an effect of carcinogenesis. The pituitary analog of hCG, known as luteinizing hormone (LH), is produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages.[1][3]

Regarding endogenous forms of hCG, there are various ways to categorize and measure them, including total hCG, C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free -subunit hCG, -core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG, and pituitary hCG. Regarding pharmaceutical preparations of hCG from animal or synthetic sources, there are many gonadotropin preparations, some of which are medically justified and others of which are of a quack nature. As of December 6, 2011[update], the United States Food and Drug Administration has prohibited the sale of “homeopathic” and over-the-counter hCG diet products and declared them fraudulent and illegal.[4][5][6]

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.7 kDa.[7]

It is heterodimeric, with an (alpha) subunit identical to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and (beta) subunit that is unique to hCG.

The two subunits create a small hydrophobic core surrounded by a high surface area-to-volume ratio: 2.8 times that of a sphere. The vast majority of the outer amino acids are hydrophilic.[7]

Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy. This allows the corpus luteum to secrete the hormone progesterone during the first trimester. Progesterone enriches the uterus with a thick lining of blood vessels and capillaries so that it can sustain the growing fetus[citation needed].

Due to its highly negative charge, hCG may repel the immune cells of the mother, protecting the fetus during the first trimester[citation needed]. It has also been hypothesized that hCG may be a placental link for the development of local maternal immunotolerance[citation needed]. For example, hCG-treated endometrial cells induce an increase in T cell apoptosis (dissolution of T cells). These results suggest that hCG may be a link in the development of peritrophoblastic immune tolerance, and may facilitate the trophoblast invasion, which is known to expedite fetal development in the endometrium.[10] It has also been suggested that hCG levels are linked to the severity of morning sickness or Hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnant women.[11]

Because of its similarity to LH, hCG can also be used clinically to induce ovulation in the ovaries as well as testosterone production in the testes. As the most abundant biological source is women who are presently pregnant, some organizations collect urine from pregnant women to extract hCG for use in fertility treatment.[12][13]

Human chorionic gonadotropin also plays a role in cellular differentiation/proliferation and may activate apoptosis.[14]

Naturally, it is produced in the human placenta by the syncytiotrophoblast.

Like other gonadotropins, it can be extracted from the urine of pregnant women or produced from cultures of genetically modified cells using recombinant DNA technology.

In Pregnyl, Follutein, Profasi, Choragon and Novarel, it is extracted from the urine of pregnant women. In Ovidrel, it is produced with recombinant DNA technology.[15]

Regarding endogenous forms of hCG, there are various ways to categorize and measure them, including total hCG, C-terminal peptide total hCG, intact hCG, free -subunit hCG, -core fragment hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, alpha hCG, and pituitary hCG.

Regarding pharmaceutical preparations of hCG from animal or synthetic sources, there are many gonadotropin preparations, some of which are medically justified and others of which are of a quack nature.

Blood or urine tests measure hCG. These can be pregnancy tests. hCG-positive indicates an implanted blastocyst and mammalian embryogenesis. These can be done to diagnose and monitor germ cell tumors and gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Concentrations are commonly reported in thousandth international units per milliliter (mIU/ml). The international unit of hCG was originally established in 1938 and has been redefined in 1964 and in 1980.[16] At the present time, 1 international unit is equal to approximately 2.351012 moles,[17] or about 6108 grams.[18]

Most tests employ a monoclonal antibody, which is specific to the -subunit of hCG (-hCG). This procedure is employed to ensure that tests do not make false positives by confusing hCG with LH and FSH. (The latter two are always present at varying levels in the body, whereas the presence of hCG almost always indicates pregnancy.)

Many hCG immunoassays are based on the sandwich principle, which uses antibodies to hCG labeled with an enzyme or a conventional or luminescent dye. Pregnancy urine dipstick tests are based on the lateral flow technique.

The following is a list of serum hCG levels. (LMP is the last menstrual period dated from the first day of your last period.) The levels grow exponentially after conception and implantation.

The ability to quantitate the hCG level is useful in the monitoring germ cell and trophoblastic tumors, follow-up care after miscarriage, and in diagnosis of and follow-up care after treatment of ectopic pregnancy. The lack of a visible fetus on vaginal ultrasound after the hCG levels have reached 1500 mIU/ml is strongly indicative of an ectopic pregnancy.[21] Still, even an hCG over 2000 IU/l does not necessarily exclude the presence of a viable intrauterine pregnancy in such cases.[22]

As pregnancy tests, quantitative blood tests and the most sensitive urine tests usually detect hCG between 6 and 12 days after ovulation.[23] However, it must be taken into account that total hCG levels may vary in a very wide range within the first 4 weeks of gestation, leading to false results during this period.[24] A rise of 35% over 48 hours is proposed as the minimal rise consistent with a viable intrauterine pregnancy.[22]

Gestational trophoblastic disease like hydatidiform moles (“molar pregnancy”) or choriocarcinoma may produce high levels of hCG (due to the presence of syncytialtrophoblasts- part of the villi that make up the placenta) despite the absence of an embryo. This, as well as several other conditions, can lead to elevated hCG readings in the absence of pregnancy.

hCG levels are also a component of the triple test, a screening test for certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities/birth defects.

A study of 32 normal pregnancies came to the result a gestational sac of 13mm was detected at a mean hCG level of 1150 UI/l (range 800-1500), a yolk sac was detected at a mean level of 6000 UI/l (range 4500-7500) and fetal heartbeat was visible at a mean hCG level of 10,000 UI/l (range 8650-12,200).[25]

Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker,[26] as its subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma, choriocarcinoma, germ cell tumors, hydatidiform mole formation, teratoma with elements of choriocarcinoma, and islet cell tumor. For this reason a positive result in males can be a test for testicular cancer. The normal range for men is between 0-5 mIU/mL. Combined with alpha-fetoprotein, -HCG is an excellent tumor marker for the monitoring of germ cell tumors.[citation needed]

Human chorionic gonadotropin is extensively used parenterally for final maturation induction in lieu of luteinizing hormone. In the presence of one or more mature ovarian follicles, ovulation can be triggered by the administration of HCG. As ovulation will happen between 38 and 40 hours after a single HCG injection,[27] procedures can be scheduled to take advantage of this time sequence,[28] such as intrauterine insemination or sexual intercourse. Also, patients that undergo IVF, in general, receive HCG to trigger the ovulation process, but have an oocyte retrieval performed at about 34 to 36 hours after injection by, a few hours before the eggs actually would be released from the ovary.

As HCG supports the corpus luteum, administration of HCG is used in certain circumstances to enhance the production of progesterone.

In the male, HCG injections are used to stimulate the Leydig cells to synthesize testosterone. The intratesticular testosterone is necessary for spermatogenesis from the sertoli cells. Typical uses for HCG in men include hypogonadism and fertility treatment.

Several vaccines against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the prevention of pregnancy are currently in clinical trials.[29]

In the case of female patients who want to be treated with HCG Pregnyl:[30] a) Since infertile female patients who undergo medically assisted reproduction (especially those who need in vitro fertilization), are known to often be suffering from tubal abnormalities, after a treatment with this drug they might experience many more ectopic pregnancies. This is why early ultrasound confirmation at the beginning of a pregnancy (to see whether the pregnancy is intrauterine or not) is crucial. – Pregnancies that have occurred after a treatment with this medicine are submitted to a higher risk of multiplets. – Female patients who have thrombosis, severe obesity or thrombophilia should not be prescribed this medicine as they have a higher risk of arterial or venous thromboembolic events after or during a treatment with HCG Pregnyl. b)Female patients who have been treated with this medicine are usually more prone to pregnancy losses.

In the case of male patients: A prolonged treatment with HCG Pregnyl is known to regularly lead to increased production of androgen. Therefore: Patients who are suffering from overt or latent cardiac failure, hypertension, renal dysfunction, migraines or epilepsy might not be allowed to start using this medicine or may require a lower dose of HCG Pregnyl. Also this medicine should be used with extreme caution in the treatment of prepubescent teenagers in order to reduce the risk of precocious sexual development or premature epiphyseal closure. This type of patients’ skeletal maturation should be closely and regularly monitored.

Both male and female patients who have the following medical conditions must not start a treatment with HCG Pregnyl: (1) Hypersensitivity to this medicine or to any of its main ingredients. (2) Known or possible androgen-dependent tumors for example male breast carcinoma or prostatic carcinoma.

In the world of performance-enhancing drugs, HCG is increasingly used in combination with various anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) cycles. As a result, HCG is included in some sports’ illegal drug lists.

When exogenous AAS are put into the male body, natural negative-feedback loops cause the body to shut down its own production of testosterone via shutdown of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA). This causes testicular atrophy, among other things. HCG is commonly used during and after steroid cycles to maintain and restore testicular size as well as normal testosterone production.[31]

High levels of AASs, that mimic the body’s natural testosterone, trigger the hypothalamus to shut down its production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Without GnRH, the pituitary gland stops releasing luteinizing hormone (LH). LH normally travels from the pituitary via the blood stream to the testes, where it triggers the production and release of testosterone. Without LH, the testes shut down their production of testosterone.[32] In males, HCG helps restore and maintain testosterone production in the testes by mimicking LH and triggering the production and release of testosterone.

If HCG is used for too long and in too high a dose, the resulting rise in natural testosterone would eventually inhibit its own production via negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.[citation needed]

Professional athletes who have tested positive for HCG have been temporarily banned from their sport, including a 50-game ban from MLB for Manny Ramirez in 2009[33] and a 4-game ban from the NFL for Brian Cushing for a positive urine test for HCG.Mixed Martial Arts fighter Dennis Siver was fined $19,800 and suspended 9 months for being tested positive after his bout at UFC 168.[35]

British endocrinologist Albert T. W. Simeons proposed HCG as an adjunct to an ultra-low-calorie weight-loss diet (fewer than 500 calories).[36] Simeons, while studying pregnant women in India on a calorie-deficient diet, and “fat boys” with pituitary problems (Frlich’s syndrome) treated with low-dose HCG, observed that both lost fat rather than lean (muscle) tissue.[36] He reasoned that HCG must be programming the hypothalamus to do this in the former cases in order to protect the developing fetus by promoting mobilization and consumption of abnormal, excessive adipose deposits. Simeons in 1954 published a book entitled Pounds and Inches, designed to combat obesity. Simeons, practicing at Salvator Mundi International Hospital in Rome, Italy, recommended low-dose daily HCG injections (125IU) in combination with a customized ultra-low-calorie (500 cal/day, high-protein, low-carbohydrate/fat) diet, which was supposed to result in a loss of adipose tissue without loss of lean tissue.[36]

Simeons’ results were not reproduced by other researchers and in 1976 in response to complaints the FDA required Simeons and others to include the following disclaimer on all advertisements:[37]

These weight reduction treatments include the injection of HCG, a drug which has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as safe and effective in the treatment of obesity or weight control. There is no substantial evidence that HCG increases weight loss beyond that resulting from caloric restriction, that it causes a more attractive or “normal” distribution of fat, or that it decreases the hunger and discomfort associated with calorie-restrictive diets.

1976 FDA-mandated disclaimer for HCG diet advertisements

There was a resurgence of interest in the “HCG diet” following promotion by Kevin Trudeau who was later banned from making HCG diet weight-loss claims by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission and eventually jailed over such claims.[38]

While not specifically cited here, review studies refuting the HCG diet have been published in the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,[39] concluded that HCG is not more effective as a weight-loss aid than dietary restriction alone.[40]

A meta analysis found that studies supporting HCG for weight loss were of poor methodological quality and concluded that “there is no scientific evidence that HCG is effective in the treatment of obesity; it does not bring about weight-loss or fat-redistribution, nor does it reduce hunger or induce a feeling of well-being”.[41]

There is no scientific evidence that HCG is effective in the treatment of obesity. The meta-analysis found insufficient evidence supporting the claims that HCG is effective in altering fat-distribution, hunger reduction or in inducing a feeling of well-being. The authors stated the use of HCG should be regarded as an inappropriate therapy for weight reduction In the authors opinion, Pharmacists and physicians should be alert on the use of HCG for Simeons therapy. The results of this meta-analysis support a firm standpoint against this improper indication. Restraints on physicians practicing this therapy can be based on our findings.

According to the American Society of Bariatric Physicians, no new clinical trials have been published since the definitive 1995 meta-analysis.[42]

The scientific consensus is that any weight loss reported by individuals on an “HCG diet” may be attributed entirely to the fact that such diets prescribe calorie intake of between 500 and 1,000 calories per day, substantially below recommended levels for an adult, to the point that this may risk health effects associated with malnutrition.[43]

Controversy about, and shortages[44] of, injected HCG for weight loss have led to substantial Internet promotion of “homeopathic HCG” for weight control. The ingredients in these products are often obscure, but if prepared from true HCG via homeopathic dilution, they contain either no HCG at all or only trace amounts. Moreover, it is highly unlikely that oral HCG is bioavailable due to the fact that digestive protease enzymes and hepatic metabolism renders peptide-based molecules (such as insulin and human growth hormone) biologically inert. HCG can likely only enter the bloodstream through injection.

The United States Food and Drug Administration has stated that over-the-counter products containing HCG are fraudulent and ineffective for weight loss. They are also not protected as homeopathic drugs and have been deemed illegal substances.[45][46] HCG itself is classified as a prescription drug in the United States and it has not been approved for over-the-counter sales by the FDA as a weight loss product or for any other purposes, and therefore neither HCG in its pure form nor any preparations containing HCG may be sold legally in the country except by prescription.[4] In December 2011, FDA and FTC started to take actions to pull unapproved HCG products from the market.[4] In the aftermath, some suppliers started to switch to “hormone-free” versions of their weight loss products, where the hormone is replaced with an unproven mixture of free amino acids[47] or where radionics is used to transfer the “energy” to the final product.

In order to induce a stronger immune response, some versions of human chorionic gonadotropin-based anti-fertility vaccines were designed as conjugates of the subunit of HCG covalently linked to tetanus toxoid.[29][48] It has been alleged that a non-conjugated tetanus vaccine used in developing countries is laced with a human chorionic gonadotropin based anti-fertility drug[49] and is distributed as a means of mass sterilization.[50] This charge has been vigorously denied by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF.[51] Others have argued that a hCG laced vaccine could not be used for sterilization since the effects of the anti-fertility vaccines are reversible (requiring booster doses to maintain immunity) and a non-conjugated vaccine is likely to be ineffective.[52][53] Finally, independent testing of the tetanus vaccine by Kenyas health authorities has revealed no traces of the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone.[54]

PDB gallery




Follow this link:
Human chorionic gonadotropin – Wikipedia